AS PUBLISHED IN THE FEDERAL REGISTER
          JULY 26, 1991

Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)

Accessibility Guidelines
for Buildings and Facilities

U.S.  Architectural & Transportation Barriers
Compliance Board
1111 18th Street, N.W., Suite 501
Washington, D.C.  20036-3894
(202) 653-7834 v/TDD
(202) 653-7863 FAX
          ADA ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES FOR BUILDINGS AND FACILITIES

                          TABLE OF CONTENTS

 1.  PURPOSE					1
 2.  GENERAL					2
  2.1 Provisions for Adults			2
  2.2* Equivalent Facilitation			2
 3.  MISCELLANEOUS INSTRUCTIONS AND DEFINITIONS	2
  3.1 Graphic Conventions			2
  3.2 Dimensional Tolerances			2
  3.3 Notes					2
  3.4 General Terminology			2
  3.5 Definitions				3
 4.  ACCESSIBLE ELEMENTS AND SPACES: SCOPE AND
   TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS			7
  4.1 Minimum Requirements			7
   4.1.1* Application				7
   4.1.2 Accessible Sites and Exterior Facilities:
      New Construction				9
   4.1.3 Accessible Buildings: New Construction	11
   4.1.4 (Reserved)				18
   4.1.5 Accessible Buildings: Additions	18
   4.1.6 Accessible Buildings: Alterations	18
4.1.7 Accessible Buildings: Historic Preservation23
  4.2 Space Allowance and Reach Ranges		25
  4.3 Accessible Route				26
  4.4 Protruding Objects			29
  4.5 Ground and Floor Surfaces			30
  4.6 Parking and Passenger Loading Zones	30
  4.7 Curb Ramps				31
  4.8 Ramps					32
  4.9 Stairs					34
  4.10 Elevators				35
  4.11 Platform Lifts (Wheelchair Lifts)	38
  4.12 Windows					38
  4.13 Doors					39
  4.14 Entrances				41
  4.15 Drinking Fountains and Water Coolers	41
  4.16 Water Closets				42
  4.17 Toilet Stalls				42
  4.18 Urinals					43
  4.19 Lavatories and Mirrors			44
  4.20 Bathtubs					44
  4.21 Shower Stalls				45
  4.22 Toilet Rooms				46
  4.23 Bathrooms, Bathing Facilities, and Shower Rooms	47
  4.24 Sinks					48
  4.25 Storage					48
  4.26 Handrails, Grab Bars, and Tub and Shower Seats	49
  4.27 Controls and Operating Mechanisms	50
  4.28 Alarms					50
  4.29 Detectable Warnings			52
  4.30 Signage					52
  4.31 Telephones				54
  4.32 Fixed or Built-in Seating and Tables 55
  4.33 Assembly Areas				56
  4.34 Automated Teller Machines		57
  4.35 Dressing and Fitting Rooms		57
 5.  RESTAURANTS AND CAFETERIAS.		58
 6.  MEDICAL CARE FACILITIES			59
 7.  BUSINESS AND MERCANTILE			61
 8.  LIBRARIES					63
 9.  ACCESSIBLE TRANSIENT LODGING		63
 10.  TRANSPORTATION FACILITIES			69
 APPENDIX					70

1.  PURPOSE.

This document sets guidelines for accessibility to places of public
accommodation and commercial facilities by individuals with
disabilities.  These guidelines are to be applied during the
design, construction, and alteration of such buildings and
facilities to the extent required by regulations issued by Federal
agencies, including the Department of Justice, under the Americans
with Disabilities Act of 1990.  

The technical specifications 4.2 through 4.35, of these guidelines
are the same as those of the American National Standard Institute's
document A117.1-1980, except as noted in this text by italics (in
the print version of this document).  However, sections 4.1.1
through 4.1.7 and sections 5 through 10 are different from ANSI
A117.1 in their entirety and are printed in standard type.

 The illustrations and text of ANSI A117.1 are reproduced with
permission from the American National Standards Institute.  Copies
of the standard may be purchased from the American National
Standards Institute at 1430 Broadway, New York, New York 10018.  

2.  GENERAL.  

2.1 Provisions for Adults.  The specifications in these guidelines
are based upon adult dimensions and anthropometrics.  

2.2* Equivalent Facilitation.  Departures from particular technical
and scoping requirements of this guideline by the use of other
designs and technologies are permitted where the alternative
designs and technologies used will provide substantially equivalent
or greater access to and usability of the facility.

3.  MISCELLANEOUS INSTRUCTIONS AND DEFINITIONS.  

3.1 Graphic Conventions.  Graphic conventions are shown in Table 1. 
Dimensions that are not marked minimum or maximum are absolute,
unless otherwise indicated in the text or captions.

 3.2 Dimensional Tolerances.  All dimensions are subject to
conventional building industry tolerances for field conditions.  

3.3 Notes.  The text of these guidelines does not contain notes or
footnotes.  Additional information, explanations, and advisory
materials are located in the Appendix.  Paragraphs marked with an
asterisk have related, nonmandatory material in the Appendix.  In
the Appendix, the corresponding paragraph numbers are preceded by
an A.  

3.4 General Terminology.  

comply with.  Meet one or more specifications of these guidelines. 


if, if ...  then.  Denotes a specification that applies only when
the conditions described are present.

may.  Denotes an option or alternative.  

shall.  Denotes a mandatory specification or requirement.  

should.  Denotes an advisory specification or recommendation.  

3.5 Definitions.  

Access Aisle.  An accessible pedestrian space between elements,
such as parking spaces, seating, and desks, that provides
clearances appropriate for use of the elements.  

Accessible.  Describes a site, building, facility, or portion
thereof that complies with these guidelines.  

Accessible Element.  An element specified by these guidelines (for
example, telephone, controls, and the like).  

Accessible Route.  A continuous unobstructed path connecting all
accessible elements and spaces of a building or facility.  Interior
accessible routes may include corridors, floors, ramps, elevators,
lifts, and clear floor space at fixtures.  Exterior accessible
routes may include parking access aisles, curb ramps, crosswalks at
vehicular ways, walks, ramps, and lifts.  

Accessible Space.  Space that complies with these guidelines.  

Adaptability.  The ability of certain building spaces and elements,
such as kitchen counters, sinks, and grab bars, to be added or
altered so as to accommodate the needs of individuals with or
without disabilities or to accommodate the needs of persons with
different types or degrees of disability.  

Addition.  An expansion, extension, or increase in the gross floor
area of a building or facility.

Administrative Authority.  A governmental agency that adopts or
enforces regulations and guidelines for the design, construction,
or alteration of buildings and facilities.  

Alteration.  An alteration is a change to a building or facility
made by, on behalf of, or for the use of a public accommodation or
commercial facility, that affects or could affect the usability of
the building or facility or part thereof.  Alterations include, but
are not limited to, remodeling, renovation, rehabilitation,
reconstruction, historic restoration, changes or rearrangement of
the structural parts or elements, and changes or rearrangement in
the plan configuration of walls and full-height partitions.  Normal
maintenance, reroofing, painting or wallpapering, or changes to
mechanical and electrical systems are not alterations unless they
affect the usability of the building or facility.  

Area of Rescue Assistance.  An area, which has direct access to an
exit, where people who are unable to use stairs may remain
temporarily in safety to await further instructions or assistance
during emergency evacuation.  

Assembly Area.  A room or space accommodating a group of
individuals for recreational, educational, political, social, or
amusement purposes, or for the consumption of food and drink.

Automatic Door.  A door equipped with a power-operated mechanism
and controls that open and close the door automatically upon
receipt of a momentary actuating signal.  The switch that begins
the automatic cycle may be a photoelectric device, floor mat, or
manual switch (see power-assisted door).  

Building.  Any structure used and intended for supporting or
sheltering any use or occupancy.

Circulation Path.  An exterior or interior way of passage from one
place to another for pedestrians, including, but not limited to,
walks, hallways, courtyards, stairways, and stair landings.  

Clear.  Unobstructed.  

Clear Floor Space.  The minimum unobstructed floor or ground space
required to accommodate a single, stationary wheelchair and
occupant.  

Closed Circuit Telephone.  A telephone with dedicated line(s) such
as a house phone, courtesy phone or phone that must be used to gain
entrance to a facility.  

Common Use.  Refers to those interior and exterior rooms, spaces,
or elements that are made available for the use of a restricted
group of people (for example, occupants of a homeless shelter, the
occupants of an office building, or the guests of such occupants). 


Cross Slope.  The slope that is perpendicular to the direction of
travel (see running slope).  

Curb Ramp.  A short ramp cutting through a curb or built up to it. 


Detectable Warning.  A standardized surface feature built in or
applied to walking surfaces or other elements to warn visually
impaired people of hazards on a circulation path.  

Dwelling Unit.  A single unit which provides a kitchen or food
preparation area, in addition to rooms and spaces for living,
bathing, sleeping, and the like.  Dwelling units include a single
family home or a townhouse used as a transient group home; an
apartment building used as a shelter; guest rooms in a hotel that
provide sleeping accommodations and food preparation areas; and
other similar facilities used on a transient basis.  For purposes
of these guidelines, use of the term "Dwelling Unit" does not imply
the unit is used as a residence.  

Egress, Means of.  A continuous and unobstructed way of exit travel
from any point in a building or facility to a public way.  A means
of egress comprises vertical and horizontal travel and may include
intervening room spaces, doorways, hallways, corridors,
passageways, balconies, ramps, stairs, enclosures, lobbies,
horizontal exits, courts and yards.  An accessible means of egress
is one that complies with these guidelines and does not include
stairs, steps, or escalators.  Areas of rescue assistance or
evacuation elevators may be included as part of accessible means of
egress.  

Element.  An architectural or mechanical component of a building,
facility, space, or site, e.g., telephone, curb ramp, door,
drinking fountain, seating, or water closet.  

Entrance.  Any access point to a building or portion of a building
or facility used for the purpose of entering.  An entrance includes
the approach walk, the vertical access leading to the entrance
platform, the entrance platform itself, vestibules if provided, the
entry door(s) or gate(s), and the hardware of the entry door(s) or
gate(s).  

Facility.  All or any portion of buildings, structures, site
improvements, complexes, equipment, roads, walks, passageways,
parking lots, or other real or personal property located on a site.

Ground Floor.  Any occupiable floor less than one story above or
below grade with direct access to grade.  A building or facility
always has at least one ground floor and may have more than one
ground floor as where a split level entrance has been provided or
where a building is built into a hillside.  

Mezzanine or Mezzanine Floor.  That portion of a story which is an
intermediate floor level placed within the story and having
occupiable space above and below its floor.  

Marked Crossing.  A crosswalk or other identified path intended for
pedestrian use in crossing a vehicular way.  

Multifamily Dwelling.  Any building containing more than two
dwelling units.  

Occupiable.  A room or enclosed space designed for human occupancy
in which individuals congregate for amusement, educational or
similar purposes, or in which occupants are engaged at labor, and
which is equipped with means of egress, light, and ventilation.  

Operable Part.  A part of a piece of equipment or appliance used to
insert or withdraw objects, or to activate, deactivate, or adjust
the equipment or appliance (for example, coin slot, push button,
handle).  

Path of Travel.  (Reserved).  

Power-assisted Door.  A door used for human passage with a
mechanism that helps to open the door, or relieves the opening
resistance of a door, upon the activation of a switch or a
continued force applied to the door itself.  

Public Use.  Describes interior or exterior rooms or spaces that
are made available to the general public.  Public use may be
provided at a building or facility that is privately or publicly
owned.

Ramp.  A walking surface which has a running slope greater than
1:20.  

Running Slope.  The slope that is parallel to the direction of
travel (see cross slope).  

Service Entrance.  An entrance intended primarily for delivery of
goods or services.  

Signage.  Displayed verbal, symbolic, tactile, and pictorial
information.  

Site.  A parcel of land bounded by a property line or a designated
portion of a public right-of- way.  

Site Improvement.  Landscaping, paving for pedestrian and vehicular
ways, outdoor lighting, recreational facilities, and the like,
added to a site.  

Sleeping Accommodations.  Rooms in which people sleep; for example,
dormitory and hotel or motel guest rooms or suites.  

Space.  A definable area, e.g., room, toilet room, hall, assembly
area, entrance, storage room, alcove, courtyard, or lobby.  

Story.  That portion of a building included between the upper
surface of a floor and upper surface of the floor or roof next
above.  If such portion of a building does not include occupiable
space, it is not considered a story for purposes of these
guidelines.  There may be more than one floor level within a story
as in the case of a mezzanine or mezzanines.  

Structural Frame.  The structural frame shall be considered to be
the columns and the girders, beams, trusses and spandrels having
direct connections to the columns and all other members which are
essential to the stability of the building as a whole.  

Tactile.  Describes an object that can be perceived using the sense
of touch.  

Text Telephone.  Machinery or equipment that employs interactive
graphic (i.e., typed) communications through the transmission of
coded signals across the standard telephone network.  Text
telephones can include, for example, devices known as TDD's
(telecommunication display devices or telecommunication devices for
deaf persons) or computers.  

Transient Lodging.  A building, facility, or portion thereof,
excluding inpatient medical care facilities, that contains one or
more dwelling units or sleeping accommodations.  Transient lodging
may include, but is not limited to, resorts, group homes, hotels,
motels, and dormitories.

Vehicular Way.  A route intended for vehicular traffic, such as a
street, driveway, or parking lot.  

Walk.  An exterior pathway with a prepared surface intended for
pedestrian use, including general pedestrian areas such as plazas
and courts.  

NOTE: Sections 4.1.1 through 4.1.7 are different from ANSI A117.1
in their entirety and are printed in standard type (ANSI A117.1
does not include scoping provisions).  

4.  ACCESSIBLE ELEMENTS AND SPACES: SCOPE AND TECHNICAL
    REQUIREMENTS.

4.1 Minimum Requirements

4.1.1* Application.  

  (1) General.  All areas of newly designed or newly constructed
buildings and facilities required to be accessible by 4.1.2 and
4.1.3 and altered portions of existing buildings and facilities
required to be accessible by 4.1.6 shall comply with these
guidelines, 4.1 through 4.35, unless otherwise provided in this
section or as modified in a special application section.

  (2) Application Based on Building Use.  Special application
sections 5 through 10 provide additional requirements for
restaurants and cafeterias, medical care facilities, business and
mercantile, libraries, accessible transient lodging, and
transportation facilities.  When a building or facility contains
more than one use covered by a special application section, each
portion shall comply with the requirements for that use.  

  (3)* Areas Used Only by Employees as Work Areas.  Areas that are
used only as work areas shall be designed and constructed so that
individuals with disabilities can approach, enter, and exit the
areas.  These guidelines do not require that any areas used only as
work areas be constructed to permit maneuvering within the work
area or be constructed or equipped (i.e., with racks or shelves) to
be accessible.  

  (4) Temporary Structures.  These guidelines cover temporary
buildings or facilities as well as permanent facilities.  Temporary
buildings and facilities are not of permanent construction but are
extensively used or are essential for public use for a period of
time.  Examples of temporary buildings or facilities covered by
these guidelines include, but are not limited to: reviewing stands,
temporary classrooms, bleacher areas, exhibit areas, temporary
banking facilities, temporary health screening services, or
temporary safe pedestrian passageways around a construction site. 
Structures, sites and equipment directly associated with the actual
processes of construction, such as scaffolding, bridging, materials
hoists, or construction trailers are not included.  

  (5) General Exceptions.  

   (a) In new construction, a person or entity is not required to
meet fully the requirements of these guidelines where that person
or entity can demonstrate that it is structurally impracticable to
do so.  Full compliance will be considered structurally
impracticable only in those rare circumstances when the unique
characteristics of terrain prevent the incorporation of
accessibility features.  If full compliance with the requirements
of these guidelines is structurally impracticable, a person or
entity shall comply with the requirements to the extent it is not
structurally impracticable.  Any portion of the building or
facility which can be made accessible shall comply to the extent
that it is not structurally impracticable.     (b) Accessibility is
not required to (i) observation galleries used primarily for
security purposes; or (ii) in non-occupiable spaces accessed only
by ladders, catwalks, crawl spaces, very narrow passageways, or
freight (non-passenger) elevators, and frequented only by service
personnel for repair purposes; such spaces include, but are not
limited to, elevator pits, elevator penthouses, piping or equipment
catwalks.

4.1.2 Accessible Sites and Exterior Facilities: New Construction. 
An accessible site shall meet the following minimum requirements:

  (1) At least one accessible route complying with 4.3 shall be
provided within the boundary of the site from public transportation
stops, accessible parking spaces, passenger loading zones if
provided, and public streets or sidewalks, to an accessible
building entrance.  

  (2) At least one accessible route complying with 4.3 shall
connect accessible buildings, accessible facilities, accessible
elements, and accessible spaces that are on the same site.  

  (3) All objects that protrude from surfaces or posts into
circulation paths shall comply with 4.4.  

  (4) Ground surfaces along accessible routes and in accessible
spaces shall comply with 4.5.  

  (5) (a) If parking spaces are provided for self-parking by
employees or visitors, or both, then accessible spaces complying
with 4.6 shall be provided in each such parking area in conformance
with the table below.  Spaces required by the table need not be
provided in the particular lot.  They may be provided in a
different location if equivalent or greater accessibility, in terms
of distance from an accessible entrance, cost and convenience is
ensured.  

TOTAL PARKING IN LOT REQUIRED MINIMUM NUMBER OF ACCESSIBLE SPACES

1 to 25       1
26 to 50      2
51 to 75      3
76 to 100     4
101 to 150    5
151 to 200    6
201 to 300    7
301 to 400    8
401 to 500    9
501 to 1000   2 percent of total
1001 and over 20, plus 1 for each 100 over 1000

Except as provided in (b), access aisles adjacent to accessible
spaces shall be 60 in (1525 mm) wide minimum.  

   (b) One in every eight accessible spaces, but not less than one,
shall be served by an access aisle 96 in (2440 mm) wide minimum and
shall be designated "van accessible" as required by 4.6.4.  The
vertical clearance at such spaces shall comply with 4.6.5.  All
such spaces may be grouped on one level of a parking structure.  

EXCEPTION: Provision of all required parking spaces in conformance
with "Universal Parking Design" (see appendix A4.6.3) is permitted.

   (c) If passenger loading zones are provided, then at least one
passenger loading zone shall comply with 4.6.6.  

   (d) At facilities providing medical care and other services for
persons with mobility impairments, parking spaces complying with
4.6 shall be provided in accordance with 4.1.2(5)(a) except as
follows:  

   (i) Outpatient units and facilities: 10 percent of the total
number of parking spaces provided serving each such outpatient unit
or facility; 

   (ii) Units and facilities that specialize in treatment or
services for persons with mobility impairments: 20 percent of the
total number of parking spaces provided serving each such unit or
facility.  

   (e)* Valet parking: Valet parking facilities shall provide a
passenger loading zone complying with 4.6.6 located on an
accessible route to the entrance of the facility.  Paragraphs 5(a),
5(b), and 5(d) of this section do not apply to valet parking
facilities.  

  (6) If toilet facilities are provided on a site, then each such
public or common use toilet facility shall comply with 4.22.  If
bathing facilities are provided on a site, then each such public or
common use bathing facility shall comply with 4.23.  

For single user portable toilet or bathing units clustered at a
single location, at least 5% but no less than one toilet unit or
bathing unit complying with 4.22 or 4.23 shall be installed at each
cluster whenever typical inaccessible units are provided. 
Accessible units shall be identified by the International Symbol of
Accessibility.  

EXCEPTION: Portable toilet units at construction sites used
exclusively by construction personnel are not required to comply
with 4.1.2(6).

  (7) Building Signage.  Signs which designate permanent rooms and
spaces shall comply with 4.30.1, 4.30.4, 4.30.5 and 4.30.6.  Other
signs which provide direction to, or information about, functional
spaces of the building shall comply with 4.30.1, 4.30.2, 4.30.3,
and 4.30.5.  Elements and spaces of accessible facilities which
shall be identified by the International Symbol of Accessibility
and which shall comply with 4.30.7 are: 

   (a) Parking spaces designated as reserved for individuals with
disabilities; 

   (b) Accessible passenger loading zones; 

   (c) Accessible entrances when not all are accessible
(inaccessible entrances shall have directional signage to indicate
the route to the nearest accessible entrance); 

   (d) Accessible toilet and bathing facilities when not all are
accessible.  

4.1.3 Accessible Buildings: New Construction.  Accessible buildings
and facilities shall meet the following minimum requirements:

  (1) At least one accessible route complying with 4.3 shall
connect accessible building or facility entrances with all
accessible spaces and elements within the building or facility.  

  (2) All objects that overhang or protrude into circulation paths
shall comply with 4.4.  

  (3) Ground and floor surfaces along accessible routes and in
accessible rooms and spaces shall comply with 4.5.  

  (4) Interior and exterior stairs connecting levels that are not
connected by an elevator, ramp, or other accessible means of
vertical access shall comply with 4.9.  

  (5)* One passenger elevator complying with 4.10 shall serve each
level, including mezzanines, in all multi-story buildings and
facilities unless exempted below.  If more than one elevator is
provided, each full passenger elevator shall comply with 4.10.  

EXCEPTION 1: Elevators are not required in facilities that are less
than three stories or that have less than 3000 square feet per
story unless the building is a shopping center, a shopping mall, or
the professional office of a health care provider, or another type
of facility as determined by the Attorney General.  The elevator
exemption set forth in this paragraph does not obviate or limit in
any way the obligation to comply with the other accessibility
requirements established in section 4.1.3.  For example, floors
above or below the accessible ground floor must meet the
requirements of this section except for elevator service.  If
toilet or bathing facilities are provided on a level not served by
an elevator, then toilet or bathing facilities must be provided on
the accessible ground floor.  In new construction if a building or
facility is eligible for this exemption but a full passenger
elevator is nonetheless planned, that elevator shall meet the
requirements of 4.10 and shall serve each level in the building. 
A full passenger elevator that provides service from a garage to
only one level of a building or facility is not required to serve
other levels.  

EXCEPTION 2: Elevator pits, elevator penthouses, mechanical rooms,
piping or equipment catwalks are exempted from this requirement.  

EXCEPTION 3: Accessible ramps complying with 4.8 may be used in
lieu of an elevator.

EXCEPTION 4: Platform lifts (wheelchair lifts) complying with 4.11
of this guideline and applicable state or local codes may be used
in lieu of an elevator only under the following conditions:

 (a) To provide an accessible route to a performing area in an
assembly occupancy.

     (b) To comply with the wheelchair viewing position
line-of-sight and dispersion requirements of 4.33.3.

     (c) To provide access to incidental occupiable spaces and
rooms which are not open to the general public and which house no
more than five persons, including but not limited to equipment
control rooms and projection booths.

     (d) To provide access where existing site constraints or other
constraints make use of a ramp or an elevator infeasible.

  (6) Windows: (Reserved).  

  (7) Doors:

   (a) At each accessible entrance to a building or facility, at
least one door shall comply with 4.13.  

   (b) Within a building or facility, at least one door at each
accessible space shall comply with 4.13.

   (c) Each door that is an element of an accessible route shall
comply with 4.13.

   (d) Each door required by 4.3.10, Egress, shall comply with
4.13.  

  (8) In new construction, at a minimum, the requirements in (a)
and (b) below shall be satisfied independently:

   (a)  (i) At least 50% of all public entrances (excluding those
in (b) below) must be accessible.  At least one must be a ground
floor entrance.  Public entrances are any entrances that are not
loading or service entrances.

  (ii)  Accessible entrances must be provided in a number at least
equivalent to the number of exits required by the applicable
building/fire codes.  (This paragraph does not require an increase
in the total number of entrances planned for a facility.)

  (iii) An accessible entrance must be provided to each tenancy in
a facility (for example, individual stores in a strip shopping
center).  

  One entrance may be considered as meeting more than one of the
requirements in (a).  Where feasible, accessible entrances shall be
the entrances used by the majority of people visiting or working in
the building.  

   (b)  (i) In addition, if direct access is provided for
pedestrians from an enclosed parking garage to the building, at
least one direct entrance from the garage to the building must be
accessible.

       (ii) If access is provided for pedestrians from a pedestrian
tunnel or elevated walkway, one entrance to the building from each
tunnel or walkway must be accessible.  

      One entrance may be considered as meeting more than one of
the requirements in (b).

  Because entrances also serve as emergency exits whose proximity
to all parts of buildings and facilities is essential, it is
preferable that all entrances be accessible.     (c) If the only
entrance to a building, or tenancy in a facility, is a service
entrance, that entrance shall be accessible.

   (d) Entrances which are not accessible shall have directional
signage complying with 4.30.1, 4.30.2, 4.30.3, and 4.30.5, which
indicates the location of the nearest accessible entrance.  

  (9)* In buildings or facilities, or portions of buildings or
facilities, required to be accessible, accessible means of egress
shall be provided in the same number as required for exits by local
building/life safety regulations.  Where a required exit from an
occupiable level above or below a level of accessible exit
discharge is not accessible, an area of rescue assistance shall be
provided on each such level (in a number equal to that of
inaccessible required exits).  Areas of rescue assistance shall
comply with 4.3.11.  A horizontal exit, meeting the requirements of
local building/life safety regulations, shall satisfy the
requirement for an area of rescue assistance.

EXCEPTION: Areas of rescue assistance are not required in buildings
or facilities having a supervised automatic sprinkler system.

  (10)* Drinking Fountains:

   (a) Where only one drinking fountain is provided on a floor
there shall be a drinking fountain which is accessible to
individuals who use wheelchairs in accordance with 4.15 and one
accessible to those who have difficulty bending or stooping.  (This
can be accommodated by the use of a "hi-lo" fountain; by providing
one fountain accessible to those who use wheelchairs and one
fountain at a standard height convenient for those who have
difficulty bending; by providing a fountain accessible under 4.15
and a water cooler; or by such other means as would achieve the
required accessibility for each group on each floor.)

   (b) Where more than one drinking fountain or water cooler is
provided on a floor, 50% of those provided shall comply with 4.15
and shall be on an accessible route.

  (11) Toilet Facilities: If toilet rooms are provided, then each
public and common use toilet room shall comply with 4.22.  Other
toilet rooms provided for the use of occupants of specific spaces
(i.e., a private toilet room for the occupant of a private office)
shall be adaptable.  If bathing rooms are provided, then each
public and common use bathroom shall comply with 4.23.  Accessible
toilet rooms and bathing facilities shall be on an accessible
route.  

  (12) Storage, Shelving and Display Units: 

   (a) If fixed or built-in storage facilities such as cabinets,
shelves, closets, and drawers are provided in accessible spaces, at
least one of each type provided shall contain storage space
complying with 4.25.  Additional storage may be provided outside of
the dimensions required by 4.25.  

   (b) Shelves or display units allowing self-service by customers
in mercantile occupancies shall be located on an accessible route
complying with 4.3.  Requirements for accessible reach range do not
apply.  

  (13) Controls and operating mechanisms in accessible spaces,
along accessible routes, or as parts of accessible elements (for
example, light switches and dispenser controls) shall comply with
4.27.  

  (14) If emergency warning systems are provided, then they shall
include both audible alarms and visual alarms complying with 4.28. 
Sleeping accommodations required to comply with 9.3 shall have an
alarm system complying with 4.28.  Emergency warning systems in
medical care facilities may be modified to suit standard health
care alarm design practice.  

  (15) Detectable warnings shall be provided at locations as
specified in 4.29.  

  (16) Building Signage:

   (a) Signs which designate permanent rooms and spaces shall
comply with 4.30.1, 4.30.4, 4.30.5 and 4.30.6.

   (b) Other signs which provide direction to or information about
functional spaces of the building shall comply with 4.30.1, 4.30.2,
4.30.3, and 4.30.5.

EXCEPTION: Building directories, menus, and all other signs which
are temporary are not required to comply.

  (17) Public telephones: 

   (a) If public pay telephones, public closed circuit telephones,
or other public telephones are provided, then they shall comply
with 4.31.2 through 4.31.8 to the extent required by the following
table:

Number of each type of telephone provided on each floor
Number of telephones required to comply with 4.31.2 through 4.31.8*

1 or more single unit    1 per floor
1 bank**                 1 per floor
2 or more banks**        1 per bank.

Accessible unit may be installed as a single unit in proximity
(either visible or with signage) to the bank.  At least one public
telephone per floor shall meet the requirements for a forward reach
telephone***.

* Additional public telephones may be installed at any height. 
Unless otherwise specified, accessible telephones may be either
forward or side reach telephones.  

** A bank consists of two or more adjacent public telephones, often
installed as a unit.  

*** EXCEPTION: For exterior installations only, if dial tone first
service is available, then a side reach telephone may be installed
instead of the required forward reach telephone (i.e., one
telephone in proximity to each bank shall comply with 4.31).  

   (b)* All telephones required to be accessible and complying with
4.31.2 through 4.31.8 shall be equipped with a volume control.  In
addition, 25 percent, but never less than one, of all other public
telephones provided shall be equipped with a volume control and
shall be dispersed among all types of public telephones, including
closed circuit telephones, throughout the building or facility. 
Signage complying with applicable provisions of 4.30.7 shall be
provided.       

   (c) The following shall be provided in accordance with 4.31.9:

   (i) if a total number of four or more public pay telephones
(including both interior and exterior phones) is provided at a
site, and at least one is in an interior location, then at least
one interior public text telephone shall be provided.  

   (ii) if an interior public pay telephone is provided in a
stadium or arena, in a convention center, in a hotel with a
convention center, or in a covered mall, at least one interior
public text telephone shall be provided in the facility.  

   (iii) if a public pay telephone is located in or adjacent to a
hospital emergency room, hospital recovery room, or hospital
waiting room, one public text telephone shall be provided at each
such location.  

   (d) Where a bank of telephones in the interior of a building
consists of three or more public pay telephones, at least one
public pay telephone in each such bank shall be equipped with a
shelf and outlet in compliance with 4.31.9(2).       (18) If fixed
or built-in seating or tables (including, but not limited to, study
carrels and student laboratory stations), are provided in
accessible public or common use areas, at least five percent (5%),
but not less than one, of the fixed or built-in seating areas or
tables shall comply with 4.32.  An accessible route shall lead to
and through such fixed or built-in seating areas, or tables.

  (19)* Assembly areas: 

   (a) In places of assembly with fixed seating accessible
wheelchair locations shall comply with 4.33.2, 4.33.3, and 4.33.4
and shall be provided consistent with the following table:

 Capacity of Seating in Assembly Areas
 Number of Required Wheelchair Locations
4 to 25        1
26 to 50       2
51 to 300      4
301 to 500     6
over 500       6, plus 1 additional space for each total seating
                  capacity increase of 100

In addition, one percent, but not less than one, of all fixed seats
shall be aisle seats with no armrests on the aisle side, or
removable or folding armrests on the aisle side.  Each such seat
shall be identified by a sign or marker.  Signage notifying patrons
of the availability of such seats shall be posted at the ticket
office.  Aisle seats are not required to comply with 4.33.4.

   (b) This paragraph applies to assembly areas where audible
communications are integral to the use of the space (e.g., concert
and lecture halls, playhouses and movie theaters, meeting rooms,
etc.).  Such assembly areas, if (1) they accommodate at least 50
persons, or if they have audio-amplification systems, and (2) they
have fixed seating, shall have a permanently installed assistive
listening system complying with 4.33.  For other assembly areas, a
permanently installed assistive listening system, or an adequate
number of electrical outlets or other supplementary wiring
necessary to support a portable assistive listening system shall be
provided.  The minimum number of receivers to be provided shall be
equal to 4 percent of the total number of seats, but in no case
less than two.  Signage complying with applicable provisions of
4.30 shall be installed to notify patrons of the availability of a
listening system.  

  (20) Where automated teller machines (ATMs) are provided, each
ATM shall comply with the requirements of 4.34 except where two or
more are provided at a location, then only one must comply.

EXCEPTION: Drive-up-only automated teller machines are not required
to comply with 4.27.2, 4.27.3 and 4.34.3.  

  (21) Where dressing and fitting rooms are provided for use by the
general public, patients, customers or employees, 5 percent, but
never less than one, of dressing rooms for each type of use in each
cluster of dressing rooms shall be accessible and shall comply with
4.35.  

Examples of types of dressing rooms are those serving different
genders or distinct and different functions as in different
treatment or examination facilities.

4.1.4 (Reserved).  

4.1.5 Accessible Buildings: Additions.  Each addition to an
existing building or facility shall be regarded as an alteration. 
Each space or element added to the existing building or facility
shall comply with the applicable provisions of 4.1.1 to 4.1.3,
Minimum Requirements (for New Construction) and the applicable
technical specifications of 4.2 through 4.35 and sections 5 through
10.  Each addition that affects or could affect the usability of an
area containing a primary function shall comply with 4.1.6(2).  

4.1.6 Accessible Buildings: Alterations.  

  (1) General.  Alterations to existing buildings and facilities
shall comply with the following:

   (a) No alteration shall be undertaken which decreases or has the
effect of decreasing accessibility or usability of a building or
facility below the requirements for new construction at the time of
alteration.

   (b) If existing elements, spaces, or common areas are altered,
then each such altered element, space, feature, or area shall
comply with the applicable provisions of 4.1.1 to 4.1.3 Minimum
Requirements (for New Construction).  If the applicable provision
for new construction requires that an element, space, or common
area be on an accessible route, the altered element, space, or
common area is not required to be on an accessible route except as
provided in 4.1.6(2) (Alterations to an Area Containing a Primary
Function.)

   (c) If alterations of single elements, when considered together,
amount to an alteration of a room or space in a building or
facility, the entire space shall be made accessible.  

   (d) No alteration of an existing element, space, or area of a
building or facility shall impose a requirement for greater
accessibility than that which would be required for new
construction.  For example, if the elevators and stairs in a
building are being altered and the elevators are, in turn, being
made accessible, then no accessibility modifications are required
to the stairs connecting levels connected by the elevator.  If
stair modifications to correct unsafe conditions are required by
other codes, the modifications shall be done in compliance with
these guidelines unless technically infeasible.  

   (e) At least one interior public text telephone complying with
4.31.9 shall be provided if:

   (i) alterations to existing buildings or facilities with less
than four exterior or interior public pay telephones would increase
the total number to four or more telephones with at least one in an
interior location; or

   (ii) alterations to one or more exterior or interior public pay
telephones occur in an existing building or facility with four or
more public telephones with at least one in an interior location.

   (f) If an escalator or stair is planned or installed where none
existed previously and major structural modifications are necessary
for such installation, then a means of accessible vertical access
shall be provided that complies with the applicable provisions of
4.7, 4.8, 4.10, or 4.11.  

   (g) In alterations, the requirements of 4.1.3(9), 4.3.10 and
4.3.11 do not apply.  

   (h)* Entrances: If a planned alteration entails alterations to
an entrance, and the building has an accessible entrance, the
entrance being altered is not required to comply with 4.1.3(8),
except to the extent required by 4.1.6(2).  If a particular
entrance is not made accessible, appropriate accessible signage
indicating the location of the nearest accessible entrance(s) shall
be installed at or near the inaccessible entrance, such that a
person with disabilities will not be required to retrace the
approach route from the inaccessible entrance.      (i) If the
alteration work is limited solely to the electrical, mechanical, or
plumbing system, or to hazardous material abatement, or automatic
sprinkler retrofitting, and does not involve the alteration of any
elements or spaces required to be accessible under these
guidelines, then 4.1.6(2) does not apply.

   (j) EXCEPTION: In alteration work, if compliance with 4.1.6 is
technically infeasible, the alteration shall provide accessibility
to the maximum extent feasible.  Any elements or features of the
building or facility that are being altered and can be made
accessible shall be made accessible within the scope of the
alteration.  

   Technically Infeasible.  Means, with respect to an alteration of
a building or a facility, that it has little likelihood of being
accomplished because existing structural conditions would require
removing or altering a load-bearing member which is an essential
part of the structural frame; or because other existing physical or
site constraints prohibit modification or addition of elements,
spaces, or features which are in full and strict compliance with
the minimum requirements for new construction and which are
necessary to provide accessibility.  

   (k) EXCEPTION:  

   (i) These guidelines do not require the installation of an
elevator in an altered facility that is less than three stories or
has less than 3,000 square feet per story unless the building is a
shopping center, a shopping mall, the professional office of a
health care provider, or another type of facility as determined by
the Attorney General.  

   (ii) The exemption provided in paragraph (i) does not obviate or
limit in any way the obligation to comply with the other
accessibility requirements established in these guidelines.  For
example, alterations to floors above or below the ground floor must
be accessible regardless of whether the altered facility has an
elevator.  If a facility subject to the elevator exemption set
forth in paragraph (i) nonetheless has a full passenger elevator,
that elevator shall meet, to the maximum extent feasible, the
accessibility requirements of these guidelines.  

  (2) Alterations to an Area Containing a Primary Function: In
addition to the requirements of 4.1.6(1), an alteration that
affects or could affect the usability of or access to an area
containing a primary function shall be made so as to ensure that,
to the maximum extent feasible, the path of travel to the altered
area and the restrooms, telephones, and drinking fountains serving
the altered area, are readily accessible to and usable by
individuals with disabilities, unless such alterations are
disproportionate to the overall alterations in terms of cost and
scope (as determined under criteria established by the Attorney
General).  

  (3) Special Technical Provisions for Alterations to Existing
Buildings and Facilities: 

   (a) Ramps: Curb ramps and interior or exterior ramps to be
constructed on sites or in existing buildings or facilities where
space limitations prohibit the use of a 1:12 slope or less may have
slopes and rises as follows:  

   (i) A slope between 1:10 and 1:12 is allowed for a maximum rise
of 6 inches.  

   (ii) A slope between 1:8 and 1:10 is allowed for a maximum rise
of 3 inches.  A slope steeper than 1:8 is not allowed.  

   (b) Stairs: Full extension of handrails at stairs shall not be
required in alterations where such extensions would be hazardous or
impossible due to plan configuration.  

   (c) Elevators:  

   (i) If safety door edges are provided in existing automatic
elevators, automatic door reopening devices may be omitted (see
4.10.6).  

   (ii) Where existing shaft configuration or technical
infeasibility prohibits strict compliance with 4.10.9, the minimum
car plan dimensions may be reduced by the minimum amount necessary,
but in no case shall the inside car area be smaller than 48 in by
48 in.  

   (iii) Equivalent facilitation may be provided with an elevator
car of different dimensions when usability can be demonstrated and
when all other elements required to be accessible comply with the
applicable provisions of 4.10.  For example, an elevator of 47 in
by 69 in (1195 mm by 1755 mm) with a door opening on the narrow
dimension, could accommodate the standard wheelchair clearances
shown in Figure 4.

   (d) Doors:  

   (i) Where it is technically infeasible to comply with clear
opening width requirements of 4.13.5, a projection of 5/8 in
maximum will be permitted for the latch side stop.   

   (ii) If existing thresholds are 3/4 in high or less, and have
(or are modified to have) a beveled edge on each side, they may
remain.  

   (e) Toilet Rooms:  

   (i) Where it is technically infeasible to comply with 4.22 or
4.23, the installation of at least one unisex toilet/bathroom per
floor, located in the same area as existing toilet facilities, will
be permitted in lieu of modifying existing toilet facilities to be
accessible.  Each unisex toilet room shall contain one water closet
complying with 4.16 and one lavatory complying with 4.19, and the
door shall have a privacy latch.  

   (ii) Where it is technically infeasible to install a required
standard stall (Fig.  30(a)), or where other codes prohibit
reduction of the fixture count (i.e., removal of a water closet in
order to create a double-wide stall), either alternate stall
(Fig.30(b)) may be provided in lieu of the standard stall.  

   (iii) When existing toilet or bathing facilities are being
altered and are not made accessible, signage complying with 4.30.1,
4.30.2, 4.30.3, 4.30.5, and 4.30.7 shall be provided indicating the
location of the nearest accessible toilet or bathing facility
within the facility.

   (f) Assembly Areas:  

   (i) Where it is technically infeasible to disperse accessible
seating throughout an altered assembly area, accessible seating
areas may be clustered.  Each accessible seating area shall have
provisions for companion seating and shall be located on an
accessible route that also serves as a means of emergency egress. 
 

   (ii) Where it is technically infeasible to alter all performing
areas to be on an accessible route, at least one of each type of
performing area shall be made accessible.  

   (g) Platform Lifts (Wheelchair Lifts): In alterations, platform
lifts (wheelchair lifts) complying with 4.11 and applicable state
or local codes may be used as part of an accessible route.  The use
of lifts is not limited to the four conditions in exception 4 of
4.1.3(5)

   (h) Dressing Rooms: In alterations where technical infeasibility
can be demonstrated, one dressing room for each sex on each level
shall be made accessible.  Where only unisex dressing rooms are
provided, accessible unisex dressing rooms may be used to fulfill
this requirement.

4.1.7 Accessible Buildings: Historic Preservation.  

  (1) Applicability:

   (a) General Rule.  Alterations to a qualified historic building
or facility shall comply with 4.1.6 Accessible Buildings:
Alterations, the applicable technical specifications of 4.2 through
4.35 and the applicable special application sections 5 through 10
unless it is determined in accordance with the procedures in
4.1.7(2) that compliance with the requirements for accessible
routes (exterior and interior), ramps, entrances, or toilets would
threaten or destroy the historic significance of the building or
facility in which case the alternative requirements in 4.1.7(3) may
be used for the feature.  

   EXCEPTION: (Reserved).

   (b) Definition.  A qualified historic building or facility is a
building or facility that is:

   (i) Listed in or eligible for listing in the National Register
of Historic Places; or

   (ii) Designated as historic under an appropriate State or local
law.

  (2) Procedures:

   (a) Alterations to Qualified Historic Buildings and Facilities
Subject to Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act:

   (i) Section 106 Process.  Section 106 of the National Historic
Preservation Act (16 U.S.C.  470 f) requires that a Federal agency
with jurisdiction over a Federal, federally assisted, or federally
licensed undertaking consider the effects of the agency's
undertaking on buildings and facilities listed in or eligible for
listing in the National Register of Historic Places and give the
Advisory Council on Historic Preservation a reasonable opportunity
to comment on the undertaking prior to approval of the undertaking. 


   (ii) ADA Application.  Where alterations are undertaken to a
qualified historic building or facility that is subject to section
106 of the National Historic Preservation Act, the Federal agency
with jurisdiction over the undertaking shall follow the section 106
process.  If the State Historic Preservation Officer or Advisory
Council on Historic Preservation agrees that compliance with the
requirements for accessible routes (exterior and interior), ramps,
entrances, or toilets would threaten or destroy the historic
significance of the building or facility, the alternative
requirements in 4.1.7(3) may be used for the feature.

   (b) Alterations to Qualified Historic Buildings and Facilities
Not Subject to Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation
Act.  Where alterations are undertaken to a qualified historic
building or facility that is not subject to section 106 of the
National Historic Preservation Act, if the entity undertaking the
alterations believes that compliance with the requirements for
accessible routes (exterior and interior), ramps, entrances, or
toilets would threaten or destroy the historic significance of the
building or facility and that the alternative requirements in
4.1.7(3) should be used for the feature, the entity should consult
with the State Historic Preservation Officer.  If the State
Historic Preservation Officer agrees that compliance with the
accessibility requirements for accessible routes (exterior and
interior), ramps, entrances or toilets would threaten or destroy
the historical significance of the building or facility, the
alternative requirements in 4.1.7(3) may be used.

   (c) Consultation With Interested Persons.  Interested persons
should be invited to participate in the consultation process,
including State or local accessibility officials, individuals with
disabilities, and organizations representing individuals with
disabilities.

   (d) Certified Local Government Historic Preservation Programs. 
Where the State Historic Preservation Officer has delegated the
consultation responsibility for purposes of this section to a local
government historic preservation program that has been certified in
accordance with section 101(c) of the National Historic
Preservation Act of 1966 (16 U.S.C.  470a (c)) and implementing
regulations (36 CFR 61.5), the responsibility may be carried out by
the appropriate local government body or official.

  (3) Historic Preservation: Minimum Requirements:

   (a) At least one accessible route complying with 4.3 from a site
access point to an accessible entrance shall be provided.  

EXCEPTION: A ramp with a slope no greater than 1:6 for a run not to
exceed 2 ft (610 mm) may be used as part of an accessible route to
an entrance.  

   (b) At least one accessible entrance complying with 4.14 which
is used by the public shall be provided.  

EXCEPTION: If it is determined that no entrance used by the public
can comply with 4.14, then access at any entrance not used by the
general public but open (unlocked) with directional signage at the
primary entrance may be used.  The accessible entrance shall also
have a notification system.  Where security is a problem, remote
monitoring may be used.

   (c) If toilets are provided, then at least one toilet facility
complying with 4.22 and 4.1.6 shall be provided along an accessible
route that complies with 4.3.  Such toilet facility may be unisex
in design.  

   (d) Accessible routes from an accessible entrance to all
publicly used spaces on at least the level of the accessible
entrance shall be provided.  Access shall be provided to all levels
of a building or facility in compliance with 4.1 whenever
practical.  

   (e) Displays and written information, documents, etc., should be
located where they can be seen by a seated person.  Exhibits and
signage displayed horizontally (e.g., open books), should be no
higher than 44 in (1120 mm) above the floor surface.  

NOTE: The technical provisions of sections 4.2 through 4.35 are the
same as those of the American National Standard Institute's
document A117.1-1980, except as noted in the text.

4.2 Space Allowance and Reach Ranges.

4.2.1* Wheelchair Passage Width.  The minimum clear width for
single wheelchair passage shall be 32 in (815 mm) at a point and 36
in (915 mm) continuously (see Fig.  1 and 24(e)).  

4.2.2 Width for Wheelchair Passing.  The minimum width for two
wheelchairs to pass is 60 in (1525 mm) (see Fig.  2).  

4.2.3* Wheelchair Turning Space.  The space required for a
wheelchair to make a 180-degree turn is a clear space of 60 in
(1525 mm) diameter (see Fig.  3(a)) or a T-shaped space (see Fig. 
3(b)).  

4.2.4* Clear Floor or Ground Space for Wheelchairs.  

4.2.4.1 Size and Approach.  The minimum clear floor or ground space
required to accommodate a single, stationary wheelchair and
occupant is 30 in by 48 in (760 mm by 1220 mm) (see Fig.  4(a)). 
The minimum clear floor or ground space for wheelchairs may be
positioned for forward or parallel approach to an object (see Fig. 
4(b) and (c)).  Clear floor or ground space for wheelchairs may be
part of the knee space required under some objects.  

4.2.4.2 Relationship of Maneuvering Clearance to Wheelchair Spaces. 
One full unobstructed side of the clear floor or ground space for
a wheelchair shall adjoin or overlap an accessible route or adjoin
another wheelchair clear floor space.  If a clear floor space is
located in an alcove or otherwise confined on all or part of three
sides, additional maneuvering clearances shall be provided as shown
in Fig.  4(d) and (e).  

4.2.4.3 Surfaces for Wheelchair Spaces.  Clear floor or ground
spaces for wheelchairs shall comply with 4.5.  

4.2.5* Forward Reach.  If the clear floor space only allows forward
approach to an object, the maximum high forward reach allowed shall
be 48 in (1220 mm) (see Fig.  5(a)).  The minimum low forward reach
is 15 in (380 mm).  If the high forward reach is over an
obstruction, reach and clearances shall be as shown in Fig.  5(b). 


4.2.6* Side Reach.  If the clear floor space allows parallel
approach by a person in a wheelchair, the maximum high side reach
allowed shall be 54 in (1370 mm) and the low side reach shall be no
less than 9 in (230 mm) above the floor (Fig.  6(a) and (b)).  If
the side reach is over an obstruction, the reach and clearances
shall be as shown in Fig 6(c).  

4.3 Accessible Route.

4.3.1* General.  All walks, halls, corridors, aisles, skywalks,
tunnels, and other spaces that are part of an accessible route
shall comply with 4.3.  

4.3.2 Location.  

  (1) At least one accessible route within the boundary of the site
shall be provided from public transportation stops, accessible
parking, and accessible passenger loading zones, and public streets
or sidewalks to the accessible building entrance they serve.  The
accessible route shall, to the maximum extent feasible, coincide
with the route for the general public.  

  (2) At least one accessible route shall connect accessible
buildings, facilities, elements, and spaces that are on the same
site.  

  (3) At least one accessible route shall connect accessible
building or facility entrances with all accessible spaces and
elements and with all accessible dwelling units within the building
or facility.  

  (4) An accessible route shall connect at least one accessible
entrance of each accessible dwelling unit with those exterior and
interior spaces and facilities that serve the accessible dwelling
unit.

4.3.3 Width.  The minimum clear width of an accessible route shall
be 36 in (915 mm) except at doors (see 4.13.5 and 4.13.6).  If a
person in a wheelchair must make a turn around an obstruction, the
minimum clear width of the accessible route shall be as shown in
Fig.  7(a) and (b).

4.3.4 Passing Space.  If an accessible route has less than 60 in
(1525 mm) clear width, then passing spaces at least 60 in by 60 in
(1525 mm by 1525 mm) shall be located at reasonable intervals not
to exceed 200 ft (61 m).  A T-intersection of two corridors or
walks is an acceptable passing place.  

4.3.5 Head Room.  Accessible routes shall comply with 4.4.2.  

4.3.6 Surface Textures.  The surface of an accessible route shall
comply with 4.5.  

4.3.7 Slope.  An accessible route with a running slope greater than
1:20 is a ramp and shall comply with 4.8.  Nowhere shall the cross
slope of an accessible route exceed 1:50.  

4.3.8 Changes in Levels.  Changes in levels along an accessible
route shall comply with 4.5.2.  If an accessible route has changes
in level greater than 1/2 in (13 mm), then a curb ramp, ramp,
elevator, or platform lift (as permitted in 4.1.3 and 4.1.6) shall
be provided that complies with 4.7, 4.8, 4.10, or 4.11,
respectively.  An accessible route does not include stairs, steps,
or escalators.  See definition of "egress, means of" in 3.5.  

4.3.9 Doors.  Doors along an accessible route shall comply with
4.13.  

4.3.10* Egress.  Accessible routes serving any accessible space or
element shall also serve as a means of egress for emergencies or
connect to an accessible area of rescue assistance.

 4.3.11 Areas of Rescue Assistance.  

4.3.11.1 Location and Construction.  An area of rescue assistance
shall be one of the following:

  (1) A portion of a stairway landing within a smokeproof enclosure
(complying with local requirements).

  (2) A portion of an exterior exit balcony located immediately
adjacent to an exit stairway when the balcony complies with local
requirements for exterior exit balconies.  Openings to the interior
of the building located within 20 feet (6 m) of the area of rescue
assistance shall be protected with fire assemblies having a
three-fourths hour fire protection rating.

  (3) A portion of a one-hour fire-resistive corridor (complying
with local requirements for fire- resistive construction and for
openings) located immediately adjacent to an exit enclosure.

  (4) A vestibule located immediately adjacent to an exit enclosure
and constructed to the same fire-resistive standards as required
for corridors and openings.

  (5) A portion of a stairway landing within an exit enclosure
which is vented to the exterior and is separated from the interior
of the building with not less than one-hour fire-resistive doors.

  (6) When approved by the appropriate local authority, an area or
a room which is separated from other portions of the building by a
smoke barrier.  Smoke barriers shall have a fire-resistive rating
of not less than one hour and shall completely enclose the area or
room.  Doors in the smoke barrier shall be tight-fitting smoke- and
draft-control assemblies having a fire-protection rating of not
less than 20 minutes and shall be self-closing or automatic
closing.  The area or room shall be provided with an exit directly
to an exit enclosure.  Where the room or area exits into an exit
enclosure which is required to be of more than one-hour
fire-resistive construction, the room or area shall have the same
fire-resistive construction, including the same opening protection,
as required for the adjacent exit enclosure.

  (7) An elevator lobby when elevator shafts and adjacent lobbies
are pressurized as required for smokeproof enclosures by local
regulations and when complying with requirements herein for size,
communication, and signage.  Such pressurization system shall be
activated by smoke detectors on each floor located in a manner
approved by the appropriate local authority.  Pressurization
equipment and its duct work within the building shall be separated
from other portions of the building by a minimum two-hour
fire-resistive construction.

4.3.11.2 Size.  Each area of rescue assistance shall provide at
least two accessible areas each being not less than 30 inches by 48
inches (760 mm by 1220 mm).  The area of rescue assistance shall
not encroach on any required exit width.  The total number of such
30-inch by 48-inch (760 mm by 1220 mm) areas per story shall be not
less than one for every 200 persons of calculated occupant load
served by the area of rescue assistance.

EXCEPTION: The appropriate local authority may reduce the minimum
number of 30-inch by 48-inch (760 mm by 1220 mm) areas to one for
each area of rescue assistance on floors where the occupant load is
less than 200.

4.3.11.3* Stairway Width.  Each stairway adjacent to an area of
rescue assistance shall have a minimum clear width of 48 inches
between handrails.

4.3.11.4* Two-way Communication.  A method of two-way
communication, with both visible and audible signals, shall be
provided between each area of rescue assistance and the primary
entry.  The fire department or appropriate local authority may
approve a location other than the primary entry.

4.3.11.5 Identification.  Each area of rescue assistance shall be
identified by a sign which states "AREA OF RESCUE ASSISTANCE" and
displays the international symbol of accessibility.  The sign shall
be illuminated when exit sign illumination is required.  Signage
shall also be installed at all inaccessible exits and where
otherwise necessary to clearly indicate the direction to areas of
rescue assistance.  In each area of rescue assistance, instructions
on the use of the area under emergency conditions shall be posted
adjoining the two-way communication system.

4.4 Protruding Objects.  

4.4.1* General.  Objects projecting from walls (for example,
telephones) with their leading edges between 27 in and 80 in (685
mm and 2030 mm) above the finished floor shall protrude no more
than 4 in (100 mm) into walks, halls, corridors, passageways, or
aisles (see Fig.  8(a)).  Objects mounted with their leading edges
at or below 27 in (685 mm) above the finished floor may protrude
any amount (see Fig.  8(a) and (b)).  Free-standing objects mounted
on posts or pylons may overhang 12 in (305 mm) maximum from 27 in
to 80 in (685 mm to 2030 mm) above the ground or finished floor
(see Fig.  8(c) and (d)).  Protruding objects shall not reduce the
clear width of an accessible route or maneuvering space (see Fig. 
8(e)).  

4.4.2 Head Room.  Walks, halls, corridors, passageways, aisles, or
other circulation spaces shall have 80 in (2030 mm) minimum clear
head room (see Fig.  8(a)).  If vertical clearance of an area
adjoining an accessible route is reduced to less than 80 in
(nominal dimension), a barrier to warn blind or visually-impaired
persons shall be provided (see Fig.  8(c-1)).

4.5 Ground and Floor Surfaces.  

4.5.1* General.  Ground and floor surfaces along accessible routes
and in accessible rooms and spaces including floors, walks, ramps,
stairs, and curb ramps, shall be stable, firm, slip- resistant, and
shall comply with 4.5.  

4.5.2 Changes in Level.  Changes in level up to 1/4 in (6 mm) may
be vertical and without edge treatment (see Fig.  7(c) ).  Changes
in level between 1/4 in and 1/2 in (6 mm and 13 mm) shall be
beveled with a slope no greater than 1:2 (see Fig.  7(d) ). 
Changes in level greater than 1/2 in (13 mm) shall be accomplished
by means of a ramp that complies with 4.7 or 4.8.  

4.5.3* Carpet.  If carpet or carpet tile is used on a ground or
floor surface, then it shall be securely attached; have a firm
cushion, pad, or backing, or no cushion or pad; and have a level
loop, textured loop, level cut pile, or level cut/uncut pile
texture.  The maximum pile thickness shall be 1/2 in (13 mm) (see
Fig.  8(f)).  Exposed edges of carpet shall be fastened to floor
surfaces and have trim along the entire length of the exposed edge. 
Carpet edge trim shall comply with 4.5.2.  

4.5.4 Gratings.  If gratings are located in walking surfaces, then
they shall have spaces no greater than 1/2 in (13 mm) wide in one
direction (see Fig.  8(g)).  If gratings have elongated openings,
then they shall be placed so that the long dimension is
perpendicular to the dominant direction of travel (see Fig.  8(h)). 


4.6 Parking and Passenger Loading Zones.  

4.6.1 Minimum Number.  Parking spaces required to be accessible by
4.1 shall comply with 4.6.2 through 4.6.5.  Passenger loading zones
required to be accessible by 4.1 shall comply with 4.6.5 and 4.6.6. 


4.6.2 Location.  Accessible parking spaces serving a particular
building shall be located on the shortest accessible route of
travel from adjacent parking to an accessible entrance.  In parking
facilities that do not serve a particular building, accessible
parking shall be located on the shortest accessible route of travel
to an accessible pedestrian entrance of the parking facility.  In
buildings with multiple accessible entrances with adjacent parking,
accessible parking spaces shall be dispersed and located closest to
the accessible entrances.  

4.6.3* Parking Spaces.  Accessible parking spaces shall be at least
96 in (2440 mm) wide.  Parking access aisles shall be part of an
accessible route to the building or facility entrance and shall
comply with 4.3.  Two accessible parking spaces may share a common
access aisle (see Fig.  9).  Parked vehicle overhangs shall not
reduce the clear width of an accessible route.  Parking spaces and
access aisles shall be level with surface slopes not exceeding 1:50
(2%) in all directions.  

4.6.4* Signage.  Accessible parking spaces shall be designated as
reserved by a sign showing the symbol of accessibility (see
4.30.7).  Spaces complying with 4.1.2(5)(b) shall have an
additional sign "Van-Accessible" mounted below the symbol of
accessibility.  Such signs shall be located so they cannot be
obscured by a vehicle parked in the space.  

4.6.5* Vertical Clearance.  Provide minimum vertical clearance of
114 in (2895 mm) at accessible passenger loading zones and along at
least one vehicle access route to such areas from site entrance(s)
and exit(s).  At parking spaces complying with 4.1.2(5)(b), provide
minimum vertical clearance of 98 in (2490 mm) at the parking space
and along at least one vehicle access route to such spaces from
site entrance(s) and exit(s).  

4.6.6 Passenger Loading Zones.  Passenger loading zones shall
provide an access aisle at least 60 in (1525 mm) wide and 20 ft
(240 in)(6100 mm) long adjacent and parallel to the vehicle pull-up
space (see Fig.  10).  If there are curbs between the access aisle
and the vehicle pull-up space, then a curb ramp complying with 4.7
shall be provided.  Vehicle standing spaces and access aisles shall
be level with surface slopes not exceeding 1:50 (2%) in all
directions.  

4.7 Curb Ramps.  

4.7.1 Location.  Curb ramps complying with 4.7 shall be provided
wherever an accessible route crosses a curb.  

4.7.2 Slope.  Slopes of curb ramps shall comply with 4.8.2.  The
slope shall be measured as shown in Fig.  11.  Transitions from
ramps to walks, gutters, or streets shall be flush and free of
abrupt changes.  Maximum slopes of adjoining gutters, road surface
immediately adjacent to the curb ramp, or accessible route shall
not exceed 1:20.  

4.7.3 Width.  The minimum width of a curb ramp shall be 36 in (915
mm), exclusive of flared sides.  

4.7.4 Surface.  Surfaces of curb ramps shall comply with 4.5.  

4.7.5 Sides of Curb Ramps.  If a curb ramp is located where
pedestrians must walk across the ramp, or where it is not protected
by handrails or guardrails, it shall have flared sides; the maximum
slope of the flare shall be 1:10 (see Fig.  12(a)).  Curb ramps
with returned curbs may be used where pedestrians would not
normally walk across the ramp (see Fig.  12(b)).  

4.7.6 Built-up Curb Ramps.  Built-up curb ramps shall be located so
that they do not project into vehicular traffic lanes (see Fig. 
13).  

4.7.7 Detectable Warnings.  A curb ramp shall have a detectable
warning complying with 4.29.2.  The detectable warning shall extend
the full width and depth of the curb ramp.  

4.7.8 Obstructions.  Curb ramps shall be located or protected to
prevent their obstruction by parked vehicles.  

4.7.9 Location at Marked Crossings.  Curb ramps at marked crossings
shall be wholly contained within the markings, excluding any flared
sides (see Fig.  15).

4.7.10 Diagonal Curb Ramps.  If diagonal (or corner type) curb
ramps have returned curbs or other well-defined edges, such edges
shall be parallel to the direction of pedestrian flow.  The bottom
of diagonal curb ramps shall have 48 in (1220 mm) minimum clear
space as shown in Fig.  15(c) and (d).  If diagonal curb ramps are
provided at marked crossings, the 48 in (1220 mm) clear space shall
be within the markings (see Fig.  15(c) and (d)).  If diagonal curb
ramps have flared sides, they shall also have at least a 24 in (610
mm) long segment of straight curb located on each side of the curb
ramp and within the marked crossing (see Fig.  15(c)).  

4.7.11 Islands.  Any raised islands in crossings shall be cut
through level with the street or have curb ramps at both sides and
a level area at least 48 in (1220 mm) long between the curb ramps
in the part of the island intersected by the crossings (see Fig. 
15(a) and (b)).  

4.8 Ramps.  

4.8.1* General.  Any part of an accessible route with a slope
greater than 1:20 shall be considered a ramp and shall comply with
4.8.  

4.8.2* Slope and Rise.  The least possible slope shall be used for
any ramp.  The maximum slope of a ramp in new construction shall be
1:12.  The maximum rise for any run shall be 30 in (760 mm) (see
Fig.  16).  Curb ramps and ramps to be constructed on existing
sites or in existing buildings or facilities may have slopes and
rises as allowed in 4.1.6(3)(a) if space limitations prohibit the
use of a 1:12 slope or less.  

4.8.3 Clear Width.  The minimum clear width of a ramp shall be 36
in (915 mm).  

4.8.4* Landings.  Ramps shall have level landings at bottom and top
of each ramp and each ramp run.  Landings shall have the following
features:

  (1) The landing shall be at least as wide as the ramp run leading
to it.  

  (2) The landing length shall be a minimum of 60 in (1525 mm)
clear.  

  (3) If ramps change direction at landings, the minimum landing
size shall be 60 in by 60 in (1525 mm by 1525 mm).  

  (4) If a doorway is located at a landing, then the area in front
of the doorway shall comply with 4.13.6.  

4.8.5* Handrails.  If a ramp run has a rise greater than 6 in (150
mm) or a horizontal projection greater than 72 in (1830 mm), then
it shall have handrails on both sides.  Handrails are not required
on curb ramps or adjacent to seating in assembly areas.  Handrails
shall comply with 4.26 and shall have the following features:

  (1) Handrails shall be provided along both sides of ramp
segments.  The inside handrail on switchback or dogleg ramps shall
always be continuous.  

  (2) If handrails are not continuous, they shall extend at least
12 in (305 mm) beyond the top and bottom of the ramp segment and
shall be parallel with the floor or ground surface (see Fig.  17).

  (3) The clear space between the handrail and the wall shall be 1
- 1/2 in (38 mm).  

  (4) Gripping surfaces shall be continuous.  

  (5) Top of handrail gripping surfaces shall be mounted between 34
in and 38 in (865 mm and 965 mm) above ramp surfaces.  

  (6) Ends of handrails shall be either rounded or returned
smoothly to floor, wall, or post.  

  (7) Handrails shall not rotate within their fittings.  

4.8.6 Cross Slope and Surfaces.  The cross slope of ramp surfaces
shall be no greater than 1:50.  Ramp surfaces shall comply with
4.5.  

4.8.7 Edge Protection.  Ramps and landings with drop-offs shall
have curbs, walls, railings, or projecting surfaces that prevent
people from slipping off the ramp.  Curbs shall be a minimum of 2
in (50 mm) high (see Fig.  17).  

4.8.8 Outdoor Conditions.  Outdoor ramps and their approaches shall
be designed so that water will not accumulate on walking surfaces. 


4.9 Stairs.  

4.9.1* Minimum Number.  Stairs required to be accessible by 4.1
shall comply with 4.9.  

4.9.2 Treads and Risers.  On any given flight of stairs, all steps
shall have uniform riser heights and uniform tread widths.  Stair
treads shall be no less than 11 in (280 mm) wide, measured from
riser to riser (see Fig.  18(a)).  Open risers are not permitted. 


4.9.3 Nosings.  The undersides of nosings shall not be abrupt.  The
radius of curvature at the leading edge of the tread shall be no
greater than 1/2 in (13 mm).  Risers shall be sloped or the
underside of the nosing shall have an angle not less than 60
degrees from the horizontal.  Nosings shall project no more than
1-1/2 in (38 mm) (see Fig.  18).  

4.9.4 Handrails.  Stairways shall have handrails at both sides of
all stairs.  Handrails shall comply with 4.26 and shall have the
following features:

  (1) Handrails shall be continuous along both sides of stairs. 
The inside handrail on switchback or dogleg stairs shall always be
continuous (see Fig.  19(a) and (b)).  

  (2) If handrails are not continuous, they shall extend at least
12 in (305 mm) beyond the top riser and at least 12 in (305 mm)
plus the width of one tread beyond the bottom riser.  At the top,
the extension shall be parallel with the floor or ground surface. 
At the bottom, the handrail shall continue to slope for a distance
of the width of one tread from the bottom riser; the remainder of
the extension shall be horizontal (see Fig.  19(c) and (d)). 
Handrail extensions shall comply with 4.4.  

  (3) The clear space between handrails and wall shall be 1-1/2 in
(38 mm).  

  (4) Gripping surfaces shall be uninterrupted by newel posts,
other construction elements, or obstructions.  

  (5) Top of handrail gripping surface shall be mounted between 34
in and 38 in (865 mm and 965 mm) above stair nosings.  

  (6) Ends of handrails shall be either rounded or returned
smoothly to floor, wall or post.  

  (7) Handrails shall not rotate within their fittings.  

4.9.5 Detectable Warnings at Stairs.  (Reserved).  

4.9.6 Outdoor Conditions.  Outdoor stairs and their approaches
shall be designed so that water will not accumulate on walking
surfaces.  

4.10 Elevators.  

4.10.1 General.  Accessible elevators shall be on an accessible
route and shall comply with 4.10 and with the ASME A17.1-1990,
Safety Code for Elevators and Escalators.  Freight elevators shall
not be considered as meeting the requirements of this section
unless the only elevators provided are used as combination
passenger and freight elevators for the public and employees.  

4.10.2 Automatic Operation.  Elevator operation shall be automatic. 
Each car shall be equipped with a self-leveling feature that will
automatically bring the car to floor landings within a tolerance of
1/2 in (13 mm) under rated loading to zero loading conditions. 
This self- leveling feature shall be automatic and independent of
the operating device and shall correct the over-travel or under-
travel.  

4.10.3 Hall Call Buttons.  Call buttons in elevator lobbies and
halls shall be centered at 42 in (1065 mm) above the floor.  Such
call buttons shall have visual signals to indicate when each call
is registered and when each call is answered.  Call buttons shall
be a minimum of 3/4 in (19 mm) in the smallest dimension.  The
button designating the up direction shall be on top.  (See Fig. 
20.) Buttons shall be raised or flush.  Objects mounted beneath
hall call buttons shall not project into the elevator lobby more
than 4 in (100 mm).  

4.10.4 Hall Lanterns.  A visible and audible signal shall be
provided at each hoistway entrance to indicate which car is
answering a call.  Audible signals shall sound once for the up
direction and twice for the down direction or shall have verbal
annunciators that say "up" or "down." Visible signals shall have
the following features:

  (1) Hall lantern fixtures shall be mounted so that their
centerline is at least 72 in (1830 mm) above the lobby floor.  (See
Fig.  20.)

  (2) Visual elements shall be at least 2-1/2 in (64 mm) in the
smallest dimension.  

  (3) Signals shall be visible from the vicinity of the hall call
button (see Fig.  20).  In-car lanterns located in cars, visible
from the vicinity of hall call buttons, and conforming to the above
requirements, shall be acceptable.

4.10.5 Raised and Braille Characters on Hoistway Entrances.  All
elevator hoistway entrances shall have raised and Braille floor
designations provided on both jambs.  The centerline of the
characters shall be 60 in (1525 mm) above finish floor.  Such
characters shall be 2 in (50 mm) high and shall comply with 4.30.4. 
Permanently applied plates are acceptable if they are permanently
fixed to the jambs.  (See Fig.  20).  

4.10.6* Door Protective and Reopening Device.  Elevator doors shall
open and close automatically.  They shall be provided with a
reopening device that will stop and reopen a car door and hoistway
door automatically if the door becomes obstructed by an object or
person.  The device shall be capable of completing these operations
without requiring contact for an obstruction passing through the
opening at heights of 5 in and 29 in (125 mm and 735 mm) above
finish floor (see Fig.  20).  Door reopening devices shall remain
effective for at least 20 seconds.  After such an interval, doors
may close in accordance with the requirements of ASME A17.1-1990. 


4.10.7* Door and Signal Timing for Hall Calls.  The minimum
acceptable time from notification that a car is answering a call
until the doors of that car start to close shall be calculated from
the following equation:

                     T = D/(1.5 ft/s) or T = D/(445 mm/s)

where T total time in seconds and D distance (in feet or
millimeters) from a point in the lobby or corridor 60 in (1525 mm)
directly in front of the farthest call button controlling that car
to the centerline of its hoistway door (see Fig.  21).  For cars
with in-car lanterns, T begins when the lantern is visible from the
vicinity of hall call buttons and an audible signal is sounded. 
The minimum acceptable notification time shall be 5 seconds.  

4.10.8 Door Delay for Car Calls.  The minimum time for elevator
doors to remain fully open in response to a car call shall be 3
seconds.  

4.10.9 Floor Plan of Elevator Cars.  The floor area of elevator
cars shall provide space for wheelchair users to enter the car,
maneuver within reach of controls, and exit from the car. 
Acceptable door opening and inside dimensions shall be as shown in
Fig.  22.  The clearance between the car platform sill and the edge
of any hoistway landing shall be no greater than 1-1/4 in (32 mm). 


4.10.10 Floor Surfaces.  Floor surfaces shall comply with 4.5.  

4.10.11 Illumination Levels.  The level of illumination at the car
controls, platform, and car threshold and landing sill shall be at
least 5 footcandles (53.8 lux).  

4.10.12* Car Controls.  Elevator control panels shall have the
following features:

  (1) Buttons.  All control buttons shall be at least 3/4 in (19
mm) in their smallest dimension.  They shall be raised or flush.  

  (2) Tactile, Braille, and Visual Control Indicators.  All control
buttons shall be designated by Braille and by raised standard
alphabet characters for letters, arabic characters for numerals, or
standard symbols as shown in Fig.  23(a), and as required in ASME
A17.1-1990.  Raised and Braille characters and symbols shall comply
with 4.30.  The call button for the main entry floor shall be
designated by a raised star at the left of the floor designation
(see Fig.  23(a)).  All raised designations for control buttons
shall be placed immediately to the left of the button to which they
apply.  Applied plates, permanently attached, are an acceptable
means to provide raised control designations.  Floor buttons shall
be provided with visual indicators to show when each call is
registered.  The visual indicators shall be extinguished when each
call is answered.  

  (3) Height.  All floor buttons shall be no higher than 54 in
(1370 mm) above the finish floor for side approach and 48 in (1220
mm) for front approach.  Emergency controls, including the
emergency alarm and emergency stop, shall be grouped at the bottom
of the panel and shall have their centerlines no less than 35 in
(890 mm) above the finish floor (see Fig.  23(a) and (b)).     (4)
Location.  Controls shall be located on a front wall if cars have
center opening doors, and at the side wall or at the front wall
next to the door if cars have side opening doors (see Fig.  23(c)
and (d)).  

4.10.13* Car Position Indicators.  In elevator cars, a visual car
position indicator shall be provided above the car control panel or
over the door to show the position of the elevator in the hoistway. 
As the car passes or stops at a floor served by the elevators, the
corresponding numerals shall illuminate, and an audible signal
shall sound.  Numerals shall be a minimum of 1/2 in (13 mm) high. 
The audible signal shall be no less than 20 decibels with a
frequency no higher than 1500 Hz.  An automatic verbal announcement
of the floor number at which a car stops or which a car passes may
be substituted for the audible signal.  

4.10.14* Emergency Communications.  If provided, emergency two-way
communication systems between the elevator and a point outside the
hoistway shall comply with ASME A17.1-1990.  The highest operable
part of a two-way communication system shall be a maximum of 48 in
(1220 mm) from the floor of the car.  It shall be identified by a
raised symbol and lettering complying with 4.30 and located
adjacent to the device.  If the system uses a handset then the
length of the cord from the panel to the handset shall be at least
29 in (735 mm).  If the system is located in a closed compartment
the compartment door hardware shall conform to 4.27, Controls and
Operating Mechanisms.  The emergency intercommunication system
shall not require voice communication.  

4.11 Platform Lifts (Wheelchair Lifts).  

4.11.1 Location.  Platform lifts (wheelchair lifts) permitted by
4.1 shall comply with the requirements of 4.11.  

4.11.2* Other Requirements.  If platform lifts (wheelchair lifts)
are used, they shall comply with 4.2.4, 4.5, 4.27, and ASME A17.1
Safety Code for Elevators and Escalators, Section XX, 1990.

 4.11.3 Entrance.  If platform lifts are used then they shall
facilitate unassisted entry, operation, and exit from the lift in
compliance with 4.11.2.  

4.12 Windows.

4.12.1* General.  (Reserved).

4.12.2* Window Hardware.  (Reserved).

4.13 Doors.  

4.13.1 General.  Doors required to be accessible by 4.1 shall
comply with the requirements of 4.13.  

4.13.2 Revolving Doors and Turnstiles.  Revolving doors or
turnstiles shall not be the only means of passage at an accessible
entrance or along an accessible route.  An accessible gate or door
shall be provided adjacent to the turnstile or revolving door and
shall be so designed as to facilitate the same use pattern.  

4.13.3 Gates.  Gates, including ticket gates, shall meet all
applicable specifications of 4.13.  

4.13.4 Double-Leaf Doorways.  If doorways have two independently
operated door leaves, then at least one leaf shall meet the
specifications in 4.13.5 and 4.13.6.  That leaf shall be an active
leaf.

4.13.5 Clear Width.  Doorways shall have a minimum clear opening of
32 in (815 mm) with the door open 90 degrees, measured between the
face of the door and the opposite stop (see Fig.  24(a), (b), (c),
and (d)).  Openings more than 24 in (610 mm) in depth shall comply
with 4.2.1 and 4.3.3 (see Fig.  24(e)).  

EXCEPTION: Doors not requiring full user passage, such as shallow
closets, may have the clear opening reduced to 20 in (510 mm)
minimum.  

4.13.6 Maneuvering Clearances at Doors.  Minimum maneuvering
clearances at doors that are not automatic or power-assisted shall
be as shown in Fig.  25.  The floor or ground area within the
required clearances shall be level and clear.  

EXCEPTION: Entry doors to acute care hospital bedrooms for
in-patients shall be exempted from the requirement for space at the
latch side of the door (see dimension "x" in Fig.  25) if the door
is at least 44 in (1120 mm) wide.  

4.13.7 Two Doors in Series.  The minimum space between two hinged
or pivoted doors in series shall be 48 in (1220 mm) plus the width
of any door swinging into the space.  Doors in series shall swing
either in the same direction or away from the space between the
doors (see Fig.  26).

 4.13.8* Thresholds at Doorways.  Thresholds at doorways shall not
exceed 3/4 in (19 mm) in height for exterior sliding doors or 1/2
in (13 mm) for other types of doors.  Raised thresholds and floor
level changes at accessible doorways shall be beveled with a slope
no greater than 1:2 (see 4.5.2).  

4.13.9* Door Hardware.  Handles, pulls, latches, locks, and other
operating devices on accessible doors shall have a shape that is
easy to grasp with one hand and does not require tight grasping,
tight pinching, or twisting of the wrist to operate. 
Lever-operated mechanisms, push-type mechanisms, and U-shaped
handles are acceptable designs.  When sliding doors are fully open,
operating hardware shall be exposed and usable from both sides. 
Hardware required for accessible door passage shall be mounted no
higher than 48 in (1220 mm) above finished floor.  

4.13.10* Door Closers.  If a door has a closer, then the sweep
period of the closer shall be adjusted so that from an open
position of 70 degrees, the door will take at least 3 seconds to
move to a point 3 in (75 mm) from the latch, measured to the
leading edge of the door.

4.13.11* Door Opening Force.  The maximum force for pushing or
pulling open a door shall be as follows:

  (1) Fire doors shall have the minimum opening force allowable by
the appropriate administrative authority.  

  (2) Other doors.  

   (a) exterior hinged doors: (Reserved).   

   (b) interior hinged doors: 5 lbf (22.2N) 

   (c) sliding or folding doors: 5 lbf (22.2N)

These forces do not apply to the force required to retract latch
bolts or disengage other devices that may hold the door in a closed
position.  

4.13.12* Automatic Doors and Power-Assisted Doors.  If an automatic
door is used, then it shall comply with ANSI/BHMA A156.10-1985. 
Slowly opening, low-powered, automatic doors shall comply with ANSI
A156.19-1984.  Such doors shall not open to back check faster than
3 seconds and shall require no more than 15 lbf (66.6N) to stop
door movement.  If a power- assisted door is used, its door-opening
force shall comply with 4.13.11 and its closing shall conform to
the requirements in ANSI A156.19-1984.  

4.14 Entrances.  

4.14.1 Minimum Number.  Entrances required to be accessible by 4.1
shall be part of an accessible route complying with 4.3.  Such
entrances shall be connected by an accessible route to public
transportation stops, to accessible parking and passenger loading
zones, and to public streets or sidewalks if available (see
4.3.2(1)).  They shall also be connected by an accessible route to
all accessible spaces or elements within the building or facility. 


4.14.2 Service Entrances.  A service entrance shall not be the sole
accessible entrance unless it is the only entrance to a building or
facility (for example, in a factory or garage).  

4.15 Drinking Fountains and Water Coolers.  

4.15.1 Minimum Number.  Drinking fountains or water coolers
required to be accessible by 4.1 shall comply with 4.15.  

4.15.2* Spout Height.  Spouts shall be no higher than 36 in (915
mm), measured from the floor or ground surfaces to the spout outlet
(see Fig.  27(a)).  

4.15.3 Spout Location.  The spouts of drinking fountains and water
coolers shall be at the front of the unit and shall direct the
water flow in a trajectory that is parallel or nearly parallel to
the front of the unit.  The spout shall provide a flow of water at
least 4 in (100 mm) high so as to allow the insertion of a cup or
glass under the flow of water.  On an accessible drinking fountain
with a round or oval bowl, the spout must be positioned so the flow
of water is within 3 in (75 mm) of the front edge of the fountain. 


4.15.4 Controls.  Controls shall comply with 4.27.4.  Unit controls
shall be front mounted or side mounted near the front edge.  

4.15.5 Clearances.  

  (1) Wall- and post-mounted cantilevered units shall have a clear
knee space between the bottom of the apron and the floor or ground
at least 27 in (685 mm) high, 30 in (760 mm) wide, and 17 in to 19
in (430 mm to 485 mm) deep (see Fig.  27(a) and (b)).  Such units
shall also have a minimum clear floor space 30 in by 48 in (760 mm
by 1220 mm) to allow a person in a wheelchair to approach the unit
facing forward.  

  (2) Free-standing or built-in units not having a clear space
under them shall have a clear floor space at least 30 in by 48 in
(760 mm by 1220 mm) that allows a person in a wheelchair to make a
parallel approach to the unit (see Fig.  27(c) and (d)).  This
clear floor space shall comply with 4.2.4.  

4.16 Water Closets.  

4.16.1 General.  Accessible water closets shall comply with 4.16. 


4.16.2 Clear Floor Space.  Clear floor space for water closets not
in stalls shall comply with Fig.  28.  Clear floor space may be
arranged to allow either a left-handed or right-handed approach.

 4.16.3* Height.  The height of water closets shall be 17 in to 19
in (430 mm to 485 mm), measured to the top of the toilet seat (see
Fig.  29(b)).  Seats shall not be sprung to return to a lifted
position.  

4.16.4* Grab Bars.  Grab bars for water closets not located in
stalls shall comply with 4.26 and Fig.  29.  The grab bar behind
the water closet shall be 36 in (915 mm) minimum.  

4.16.5* Flush Controls.  Flush controls shall be hand operated or
automatic and shall comply with 4.27.4.  Controls for flush valves
shall be mounted on the wide side of toilet areas no more than 44
in (1120 mm) above the floor.  

4.16.6 Dispensers.  Toilet paper dispensers shall be installed
within reach, as shown in Fig.  29(b).  Dispensers that control
delivery, or that do not permit continuous paper flow, shall not be
used.  

4.17 Toilet Stalls.  

4.17.1 Location.  Accessible toilet stalls shall be on an
accessible route and shall meet the requirements of 4.17.  

4.17.2 Water Closets.  Water closets in accessible stalls shall
comply with 4.16.  

4.17.3* Size and Arrangement.  The size and arrangement of the
standard toilet stall shall comply with Fig.  30(a), Standard
Stall.  Standard toilet stalls with a minimum depth of 56 in (1420
mm) (see Fig.  30(a)) shall have wall-mounted water closets.  If
the depth of a standard toilet stall is increased at least 3 in (75
mm), then a floor-mounted water closet may be used.  Arrangements
shown for standard toilet stalls may be reversed to allow either a
left- or right- hand approach.  Additional stalls shall be provided
in conformance with 4.22.4.

EXCEPTION: In instances of alteration work where provision of a
standard stall (Fig.  30(a)) is technically infeasible or where
plumbing code requirements prevent combining existing stalls to
provide space, either alternate stall (Fig.  30(b)) may be provided
in lieu of the standard stall.  

4.17.4 Toe Clearances.  In standard stalls, the front partition and
at least one side partition shall provide a toe clearance of at
least 9 in (230 mm) above the floor.  If the depth of the stall is
greater than 60 in (1525 mm), then the toe clearance is not
required.  

4.17.5* Doors.  Toilet stall doors, including door hardware, shall
comply with 4.13.  If toilet stall approach is from the latch side
of the stall door, clearance between the door side of the stall and
any obstruction may be reduced to a minimum of 42 in (1065 mm)
(Fig.  30).

4.17.6 Grab Bars.  Grab bars complying with the length and
positioning shown in Fig.  30(a), (b), (c), and (d) shall be
provided.  Grab bars may be mounted with any desired method as long
as they have a gripping surface at the locations shown and do not
obstruct the required clear floor area.  Grab bars shall comply
with 4.26.  

4.18 Urinals.  

4.18.1 General.  Accessible urinals shall comply with 4.18.  

4.18.2 Height.  Urinals shall be stall-type or wall-hung with an
elongated rim at a maximum of 17 in (430 mm) above the finish
floor.  

4.18.3 Clear Floor Space.  A clear floor space 30 in by 48 in (760
mm by 1220 mm) shall be provided in front of urinals to allow
forward approach.  This clear space shall adjoin or overlap an
accessible route and shall comply with 4.2.4.  Urinal shields that
do not extend beyond the front edge of the urinal rim may be
provided with 29 in (735 mm) clearance between them.  

4.18.4 Flush Controls.  Flush controls shall be hand operated or
automatic, and shall comply with 4.27.4, and shall be mounted no
more than 44 in (1120 mm) above the finish floor.  

4.19 Lavatories and Mirrors.  

4.19.1 General.  The requirements of 4.19 shall apply to lavatory
fixtures, vanities, and built-in lavatories.  

4.19.2 Height and Clearances.  Lavatories shall be mounted with the
rim or counter surface no higher than 34 in (865 mm) above the
finish floor.  Provide a clearance of at least 29 in (735 mm) above
the finish floor to the bottom of the apron.  Knee and toe
clearance shall comply with Fig.  31.  

4.19.3 Clear Floor Space.  A clear floor space 30 in by 48 in (760
mm by 1220 mm) complying with 4.2.4 shall be provided in front of
a lavatory to allow forward approach.  Such clear floor space shall
adjoin or overlap an accessible route and shall extend a maximum of
19 in (485 mm) underneath the lavatory (see Fig.  32).  

4.19.4 Exposed Pipes and Surfaces.  Hot water and drain pipes under
lavatories shall be insulated or otherwise configured to protect
against contact.  There shall be no sharp or abrasive surfaces
under lavatories.  

4.19.5 Faucets.  Faucets shall comply with 4.27.4.  Lever-operated,
push-type, and electronically controlled mechanisms are examples of
acceptable designs.  If self-closing valves are used the faucet
shall remain open for at least 10 seconds.  

4.19.6* Mirrors.  Mirrors shall be mounted with the bottom edge of
the reflecting surface no higher than 40 in (1015 mm) above the
finish floor (see Fig.  31).  

4.20 Bathtubs.  

4.20.1 General.  Accessible bathtubs shall comply with 4.20.  

4.20.2 Floor Space.  Clear floor space in front of bathtubs shall
be as shown in Fig.  33.  

4.20.3 Seat.  An in-tub seat or a seat at the head end of the tub
shall be provided as shown in Fig.  33 and 34.  The structural
strength of seats and their attachments shall comply with 4.26.3. 
Seats shall be mounted securely and shall not slip during use.  

4.20.4 Grab Bars.  Grab bars complying with 4.26 shall be provided
as shown in Fig.  33 and 34.

 4.20.5 Controls.  Faucets and other controls complying with 4.27.4
shall be located as shown in Fig.  34.  

4.20.6 Shower Unit.  A shower spray unit with a hose at least 60 in
(1525 mm) long that can be used both as a fixed shower head and as
a hand-held shower shall be provided.  

4.20.7 Bathtub Enclosures.  If provided, enclosures for bathtubs
shall not obstruct controls or transfer from wheelchairs onto
bathtub seats or into tubs.  Enclosures on bathtubs shall not have
tracks mounted on their rims.  

4.21 Shower Stalls.  

4.21.1* General.  Accessible shower stalls shall comply with 4.21. 


4.21.2 Size and Clearances.  Except as specified in 9.1.2, shower
stall size and clear floor space shall comply with Fig.  35(a) or
(b).  The shower stall in Fig.  35(a) shall be 36 in by 36 in (915
mm by 915 mm).  Shower stalls required by 9.1.2 shall comply with
Fig.  57(a) or (b).  The shower stall in Fig.  35(b) will fit into
the space required for a bathtub.  

4.21.3 Seat.  A seat shall be provided in shower stalls 36 in by 36
in (915 mm by 915 mm) and shall be as shown in Fig.  36.  The seat
shall be mounted 17 in to 19 in (430 mm to 485 mm) from the
bathroom floor and shall extend the full depth of the stall.  In a
36 in by 36 in (915 mm by 915 mm) shower stall, the seat shall be
on the wall opposite the controls.  Where a fixed seat is provided
in a 30 in by 60 in minimum (760 mm by 1525 mm) shower stall, it
shall be a folding type and shall be mounted on the wall adjacent
to the controls as shown in Fig.  57.  The structural strength of
seats and their attachments shall comply with 4.26.3.  

4.21.4 Grab Bars.  Grab bars complying with 4.26 shall be provided
as shown in Fig.  37.  

4.21.5 Controls.  Faucets and other controls complying with 4.27.4
shall be located as shown in Fig.  37.  In shower stalls 36 in by
36 in (915 mm by 915 mm), all controls, faucets, and the shower
unit shall be mounted on the side wall opposite the seat.

4.21.6 Shower Unit.  A shower spray unit with a hose at least 60 in
(1525 mm) long that can be used both as a fixed shower head and as
a hand-held shower shall be provided.  

EXCEPTION: In unmonitored facilities where vandalism is a
consideration, a fixed shower head mounted at 48 in (1220 mm) above
the shower floor may be used in lieu of a hand-held shower head.  

4.21.7 Curbs.  If provided, curbs in shower stalls 36 in by 36 in
(915 mm by 915 mm) shall be no higher than 1/2 in (13 mm).  Shower
stalls that are 30 in by 60 in (760 mm by 1525 mm) minimum shall
not have curbs.  

4.21.8 Shower Enclosures.  If provided, enclosures for shower
stalls shall not obstruct controls or obstruct transfer from
wheelchairs onto shower seats.  

4.22 Toilet Rooms.  

4.22.1 Minimum Number.  Toilet facilities required to be accessible
by 4.1 shall comply with 4.22.  Accessible toilet rooms shall be on
an accessible route.  

4.22.2 Doors.  All doors to accessible toilet rooms shall comply
with 4.13.  Doors shall not swing into the clear floor space
required for any fixture.  

4.22.3* Clear Floor Space.  The accessible fixtures and controls
required in 4.22.4, 4.22.5, 4.22.6, and 4.22.7 shall be on an
accessible route.  An unobstructed turning space complying with
4.2.3 shall be provided within an accessible toilet room.  The
clear floor space at fixtures and controls, the accessible route,
and the turning space may overlap.  

4.22.4 Water Closets.  If toilet stalls are provided, then at least
one shall be a standard toilet stall complying with 4.17; where 6
or more stalls are provided, in addition to the stall complying
with 4.17.3, at least one stall 36 in (915 mm) wide with an outward
swinging, self- closing door and parallel grab bars complying with
Fig.  30(d) and 4.26 shall be provided.  Water closets in such
stalls shall comply with 4.16.  If water closets are not in stalls,
then at least one shall comply with 4.16.  

4.22.5 Urinals.  If urinals are provided, then at least one shall
comply with 4.18.  

4.22.6 Lavatories and Mirrors.  If lavatories and mirrors are
provided, then at least one of each shall comply with 4.19.  

4.22.7 Controls and Dispensers.  If controls, dispensers,
receptacles, or other equipment are provided, then at least one of
each shall be on an accessible route and shall comply with 4.27.

 4.23 Bathrooms, Bathing Facilities, and Shower Rooms.  

4.23.1 Minimum Number.  Bathrooms, bathing facilities, or shower
rooms required to be accessible by 4.1 shall comply with 4.23 and
shall be on an accessible route.  

4.23.2 Doors.  Doors to accessible bathrooms shall comply with
4.13.  Doors shall not swing into the floor space required for any
fixture.  

4.23.3* Clear Floor Space.  The accessible fixtures and controls
required in 4.23.4, 4.23.5, 4.23.6, 4.23.7, 4.23.8, and 4.23.9
shall be on an accessible route.  An unobstructed turning space
complying with 4.2.3 shall be provided within an accessible
bathroom.  The clear floor spaces at fixtures and controls, the
accessible route, and the turning space may overlap.  

4.23.4 Water Closets.  If toilet stalls are provided, then at least
one shall be a standard toilet stall complying with 4.17; where 6
or more stalls are provided, in addition to the stall complying
with 4.17.3, at least one stall 36 in (915 mm) wide with an outward
swinging, self- closing door and parallel grab bars complying with
Fig.  30(d) and 4.26 shall be provided.  Water closets in such
stalls shall comply with 4.16.  If water closets are not in stalls,
then at least one shall comply with 4.16.

4.23.5 Urinals.  If urinals are provided, then at least one shall
comply with 4.18.  

4.23.6 Lavatories and Mirrors.  If lavatories and mirrors are
provided, then at least one of each shall comply with 4.19.  

4.23.7 Controls and Dispensers.  If controls, dispensers,
receptacles, or other equipment are provided, then at least one of
each shall be on an accessible route and shall comply with 4.27.  

4.23.8 Bathing and Shower Facilities.  If tubs or showers are
provided, then at least one accessible tub that complies with 4.20
or at least one accessible shower that complies with 4.21 shall be
provided.  

4.23.9* Medicine Cabinets.  If medicine cabinets are provided, at
least one shall be located with a usable shelf no higher than 44 in
(1120 mm) above the floor space.  The floor space shall comply with
4.2.4.  

4.24 Sinks.  

4.24.1 General.  Sinks required to be accessible by 4.1 shall
comply with 4.24.  

4.24.2 Height.  Sinks shall be mounted with the counter or rim no
higher than 34 in (865 mm) above the finish floor.  

4.24.3 Knee Clearance.  Knee clearance that is at least 27 in (685
mm) high, 30 in (760 mm) wide, and 19 in (485 mm) deep shall be
provided underneath sinks.  

4.24.4 Depth.  Each sink shall be a maximum of 6-1/2 in (165 mm)
deep.  

4.24.5 Clear Floor Space.  A clear floor space at least 30 in by 48
in (760 mm by 1220 mm) complying with 4.2.4 shall be provided in
front of a sink to allow forward approach.  The clear floor space
shall be on an accessible route and shall extend a maximum of 19 in
(485 mm) underneath the sink (see Fig.  32).  

4.24.6 Exposed Pipes and Surfaces.  Hot water and drain pipes
exposed under sinks shall be insulated or otherwise configured so
as to protect against contact.  There shall be no sharp or abrasive
surfaces under sinks.  

4.24.7 Faucets.  Faucets shall comply with 4.27.4.  Lever-operated,
push-type, touch-type, or electronically controlled mechanisms are
acceptable designs.

4.25 Storage.  

4.25.1 General.  Fixed storage facilities such as cabinets,
shelves, closets, and drawers required to be accessible by 4.1
shall comply with 4.25.  

4.25.2 Clear Floor Space.  A clear floor space at least 30 in by 48
in (760 mm by 1220 mm) complying with 4.2.4 that allows either a
forward or parallel approach by a person using a wheelchair shall
be provided at accessible storage facilities.  

4.25.3 Height.  Accessible storage spaces shall be within at least
one of the reach ranges specified in 4.2.5 and 4.2.6 (see Fig.  5
and Fig 6).  Clothes rods or shelves shall be a maximum of 54 in
(1370 mm) above the finish floor for a side approach.  Where the
distance from the wheelchair to the clothes rod or shelf exceeds 10
in (255 mm) (as in closets without accessible doors) the height and
depth to the rod or shelf shall comply with Fig.  38(a) and Fig. 
38(b).

4.25.4 Hardware.  Hardware for accessible storage facilities shall
comply with 4.27.4.  Touch latches and U-shaped pulls are
acceptable.  

4.26 Handrails, Grab Bars, and Tub and Shower Seats.  

4.26.1* General.  All handrails, grab bars, and tub and shower
seats required to be accessible by 4.1, 4.8, 4.9, 4.16, 4.17, 4.20
or 4.21 shall comply with 4.26.  

4.26.2* Size and Spacing of Grab Bars and Handrails.  The diameter
or width of the gripping surfaces of a handrail or grab bar shall
be 1-1/4 in to 1-1/2 in (32 mm to 38 mm), or the shape shall
provide an equivalent gripping surface.  If handrails or grab bars
are mounted adjacent to a wall, the space between the wall and the
grab bar shall be 1-1/2 in (38 mm) (see Fig.  39(a), (b), (c), and
(e)).  Handrails may be located in a recess if the recess is a
maximum of 3 in (75 mm) deep and extends at least 18 in (455 mm)
above the top of the rail (see Fig.  39(d)).  

4.26.3 Structural Strength.  The structural strength of grab bars,
tub and shower seats, fasteners, and mounting devices shall meet
the following specification:

  (1) Bending stress in a grab bar or seat induced by the maximum
bending moment from the application of 250 lbf (1112N) shall be
less than the allowable stress for the material of the grab bar or
seat.  

  (2) Shear stress induced in a grab bar or seat by the application
of 250 lbf (1112N) shall be less than the allowable shear stress
for the material of the grab bar or seat.  If the connection
between the grab bar or seat and its mounting bracket or other
support is considered to be fully restrained, then direct and
torsional shear stresses shall be totaled for the combined shear
stress, which shall not exceed the allowable shear stress.  

  (3) Shear force induced in a fastener or mounting device from the
application of 250 lbf (1112N) shall be less than the allowable
lateral load of either the fastener or mounting device or the
supporting structure, whichever is the smaller allowable load.  

  (4) Tensile force induced in a fastener by a direct tension force
of 250 lbf (1112N) plus the maximum moment from the application of
250 lbf (1112N) shall be less than the allowable withdrawal load
between the fastener and the supporting structure.  

  (5) Grab bars shall not rotate within their fittings.  

4.26.4 Eliminating Hazards.  A handrail or grab bar and any wall or
other surface adjacent to it shall be free of any sharp or abrasive
elements.  Edges shall have a minimum radius of 1/8 in (3.2 mm).  

4.27 Controls and Operating Mechanisms.  

4.27.1 General.  Controls and operating mechanisms required to be
accessible by 4.1 shall comply with 4.27.  

4.27.2 Clear Floor Space.  Clear floor space complying with 4.2.4
that allows a forward or a parallel approach by a person using a
wheelchair shall be provided at controls, dispensers, receptacles,
and other operable equipment.  

4.27.3* Height.  The highest operable part of controls, dispensers,
receptacles, and other operable equipment shall be placed within at
least one of the reach ranges specified in 4.2.5 and 4.2.6. 
Electrical and communications system receptacles on walls shall be
mounted no less than 15 in (380 mm) above the floor.  

EXCEPTION: These requirements do not apply where the use of special
equipment dictates otherwise or where electrical and communications
systems receptacles are not normally intended for use by building
occupants.  

4.27.4 Operation.  Controls and operating mechanisms shall be
operable with one hand and shall not require tight grasping,
pinching, or twisting of the wrist.  The force required to activate
controls shall be no greater than 5 lbf (22.2 N).  

4.28 Alarms.

4.28.1 General.  Alarm systems required to be accessible by 4.1
shall comply with 4.28.  At a minimum, visual signal appliances
shall be provided in buildings and facilities in each of the
following areas: restrooms and any other general usage areas (e.g.,
meeting rooms), hallways, lobbies, and any other area for common
use.  

4.28.2* Audible Alarms.  If provided, audible emergency alarms
shall produce a sound that exceeds the prevailing equivalent sound
level in the room or space by at least 15 dbA or exceeds any
maximum sound level with a duration of 60 seconds by 5 dbA,
whichever is louder.  Sound levels for alarm signals shall not
exceed 120 dbA.  

4.28.3* Visual Alarms.  Visual alarm signal appliances shall be
integrated into the building or facility alarm system.  If single
station audible alarms are provided then single station visual
alarm signals shall be provided.  Visual alarm signals shall have
the following minimum photometric and location features:

  (1) The lamp shall be a xenon strobe type or equivalent.     (2)
The color shall be clear or nominal white (i.e., unfiltered or
clear filtered white light).  

  (3) The maximum pulse duration shall be two-tenths of one second
(0.2 sec) with a maximum duty cycle of 40 percent.  The pulse
duration is defined as the time interval between initial and final
points of 10 percent of maximum signal.  

  (4) The intensity shall be a minimum of 75 candela.  

  (5) The flash rate shall be a minimum of 1 Hz and a maximum of 3
Hz.  

  (6) The appliance shall be placed 80 in (2030 mm) above the
highest floor level within the space or 6 in (152 mm) below the
ceiling, whichever is lower.  

  (7) In general, no place in any room or space required to have a
visual signal appliance shall be more than 50 ft (15 m) from the
signal (in the horizontal plane).  In large rooms and spaces
exceeding 100 ft (30 m) across, without obstructions 6 ft (2 m)
above the finish floor, such as auditoriums, devices may be placed
around the perimeter, spaced a maximum 100 ft (30 m) apart, in lieu
of suspending appliances from the ceiling.  

  (8) No place in common corridors or hallways in which visual
alarm signalling appliances are required shall be more than 50 ft
(15 m) from the signal.  

4.28.4* Auxiliary Alarms.  Units and sleeping accommodations shall
have a visual alarm connected to the building emergency alarm
system or shall have a standard 110-volt electrical receptacle into
which such an alarm can be connected and a means by which a signal
from the building emergency alarm system can trigger such an
auxiliary alarm.  When visual alarms are in place the signal shall
be visible in all areas of the unit or room.  Instructions for use
of the auxiliary alarm or receptacle shall be provided.  

4.29 Detectable Warnings.  

4.29.1 General.  Detectable warnings required by 4.1 and 4.7 shall
comply with 4.29.  

4.29.2* Detectable Warnings on Walking Surfaces.  Detectable
warnings shall consist of raised truncated domes with a diameter of
nominal 0.9 in (23 mm), a height of nominal 0.2 in (5 mm) and a
center-to-center spacing of nominal 2.35 in (60 mm) and shall
contrast visually with adjoining surfaces, either light-on-dark, or
dark-on-light.  

The material used to provide contrast shall be an integral part of
the walking surface.  Detectable warnings used on interior surfaces
shall differ from adjoining walking surfaces in resiliency or
sound-on-cane contact.  

4.29.3 Detectable Warnings on Doors To Hazardous Areas. 
(Reserved).  

4.29.4 Detectable Warnings at Stairs.  (Reserved).  

4.29.5 Detectable Warnings at Hazardous Vehicular Areas.  If a walk
crosses or adjoins a vehicular way, and the walking surfaces are
not separated by curbs, railings, or other elements between the
pedestrian areas and vehicular areas, the boundary between the
areas shall be defined by a continuous detectable warning which is
36 in (915 mm) wide, complying with 4.29.2.  

4.29.6 Detectable Warnings at Reflecting Pools.  The edges of
reflecting pools shall be protected by railings, walls, curbs, or
detectable warnings complying with 4.29.2.  

4.29.7 Standardization.  (Reserved).  

4.30 Signage.  

4.30.1* General.  Signage required to be accessible by 4.1 shall
comply with the applicable provisions of 4.30.

4.30.2* Character Proportion.  Letters and numbers on signs shall
have a width-to-height ratio between 3:5 and 1:1 and a
stroke-width-to-height ratio between 1:5 and 1:10.  

4.30.3 Character Height.  Characters and numbers on signs shall be
sized according to the viewing distance from which they are to be
read.  The minimum height is measured using an upper case X.  Lower
case characters are permitted.  

Height Above Finished Floor         Minimum Character Height
Suspended or Projected Overhead in compliance with 4.4.2          
  3 in (75 mm) minimum

4.30.4* Raised and Brailled Characters and Pictorial Symbol Signs
(Pictograms).  Letters and numerals shall be raised 1/32 in, upper
case, sans serif or simple serif type and shall be accompanied with
Grade 2 Braille.  Raised characters shall be at least 5/8 in (16
mm) high, but no higher than 2 in (50 mm).  Pictograms shall be
accompanied by the equivalent verbal description placed directly
below the pictogram.  The border dimension of the pictogram shall
be 6 in (152 mm) minimum in height.  

4.30.5* Finish and Contrast.  The characters and background of
signs shall be eggshell, matte, or other non-glare finish. 
Characters and symbols shall contrast with their background --
either light characters on a dark background or dark characters on
a light background.  

4.30.6 Mounting Location and Height.  Where permanent
identification is provided for rooms and spaces, signs shall be
installed on the wall adjacent to the latch side of the door. 
Where there is no wall space to the latch side of the door,
including at double leaf doors, signs shall be placed on the
nearest adjacent wall.  Mounting height shall be 60 in (1525 mm)
above the finish floor to the centerline of the sign.  Mounting
location for such signage shall be so that a person may approach
within 3 in (76 mm) of signage without encountering protruding
objects or standing within the swing of a door.  

4.30.7* Symbols of Accessibility.  

  (1) Facilities and elements required to be identified as
accessible by 4.1 shall use the international symbol of
accessibility.  The symbol shall be displayed as shown in Fig. 
43(a) and (b).

  (2) Volume Control Telephones.  Telephones required to have a
volume control by 4.1.3(17)(b) shall be identified by a sign
containing a depiction of a telephone handset with radiating sound
waves.  

  (3) Text Telephones.  Text telephones required by 4.1.3(17)(c)
shall be identified by the international TDD symbol (Fig 43(c)). 
In addition, if a facility has a public text telephone, directional
signage indicating the location of the nearest text telephone shall
be placed adjacent to all banks of telephones which do not contain
a text telephone.  Such directional signage shall include the
international TDD symbol.  If a facility has no banks of
telephones, the directional signage shall be provided at the
entrance (e.g., in a building directory).

  (4) Assistive Listening Systems.  In assembly areas where
permanently installed assistive listening systems are required by
4.1.3(19)(b) the availability of such systems shall be identified
with signage that includes the international symbol of access for
hearing loss (Fig 43(d)).  

4.30.8* Illumination Levels.  (Reserved).  

4.31 Telephones.  

4.31.1 General.  Public telephones required to be accessible by 4.1
shall comply with 4.31.  

4.31.2 Clear Floor or Ground Space.  A clear floor or ground space
at least 30 in by 48 in (760 mm by 1220 mm) that allows either a
forward or parallel approach by a person using a wheelchair shall
be provided at telephones (see Fig.  44).  The clear floor or
ground space shall comply with 4.2.4.  Bases, enclosures, and fixed
seats shall not impede approaches to telephones by people who use
wheelchairs.  

4.31.3* Mounting Height.  The highest operable part of the
telephone shall be within the reach ranges specified in 4.2.5 or
4.2.6.  

4.31.4 Protruding Objects.  Telephones shall comply with 4.4.  

4.31.5 Hearing Aid Compatible and Volume Control Telephones
Required by 4.1.  

  (1) Telephones shall be hearing aid compatible.  

  (2) Volume controls, capable of a minimum of 12 dbA and a maximum
of 18 dbA above normal, shall be provided in accordance with 4.1.3. 
If an automatic reset is provided then 18 dbA may be exceeded.  

4.31.6 Controls.  Telephones shall have pushbutton controls where
service for such equipment is available.  

4.31.7 Telephone Books.  Telephone books, if provided, shall be
located in a position that complies with the reach ranges specified
in 4.2.5 and 4.2.6.  

4.31.8 Cord Length.  The cord from the telephone to the handset
shall be at least 29 in (735 mm) long.  

4.31.9* Text Telephones Required by 4.1.

  (1) Text telephones used with a pay telephone shall be
permanently affixed within, or adjacent to, the telephone
enclosure.  If an acoustic coupler is used, the telephone cord
shall be sufficiently long to allow connection of the text
telephone and the telephone receiver.

  (2) Pay telephones designed to accommodate a portable text
telephone shall be equipped with a shelf and an electrical outlet
within or adjacent to the telephone enclosure.  The telephone
handset shall be capable of being placed flush on the surface of
the shelf.  The shelf shall be capable of accommodating a text
telephone and shall have 6 in (152 mm) minimum vertical clearance
in the area where the text telephone is to be placed.  

  (3) Equivalent facilitation may be provided.  For example, a
portable text telephone may be made available in a hotel at the
registration desk if it is available on a 24-hour basis for use
with nearby public pay telephones.  In this instance, at least one
pay telephone shall comply with paragraph 2 of this section.  In
addition, if an acoustic coupler is used, the telephone handset
cord shall be sufficiently long so as to allow connection of the
text telephone and the telephone receiver.  Directional signage
shall be provided and shall comply with 4.30.7.

4.32 Fixed or Built-in Seating and Tables.  

4.32.1 Minimum Number.  Fixed or built-in seating or tables
required to be accessible by 4.1 shall comply with 4.32.  

4.32.2 Seating.  If seating spaces for people in wheelchairs are
provided at fixed tables or counters, clear floor space complying
with 4.2.4 shall be provided.  Such clear floor space shall not
overlap knee space by more than 19 in (485 mm) (see Fig.  45).  

4.32.3 Knee Clearances.  If seating for people in wheelchairs is
provided at tables or counters, knee spaces at least 27 in (685 mm)
high, 30 in (760 mm) wide, and 19 in (485 mm) deep shall be
provided (see Fig.  45).  

4.32.4* Height of Tables or Counters.  The tops of accessible
tables and counters shall be from 28 in to 34 in (710 mm to 865 mm)
above the finish floor or ground.  

4.33 Assembly Areas.  

4.33.1 Minimum Number.  Assembly and associated areas required to
be accessible by 4.1 shall comply with 4.33.  

4.33.2* Size of Wheelchair Locations.  Each wheelchair location
shall provide minimum clear ground or floor spaces as shown in Fig. 
46.  

4.33.3* Placement of Wheelchair Locations.  Wheelchair areas shall
be an integral part of any fixed seating plan and shall be provided
so as to provide people with physical disabilities a choice of
admission prices and lines of sight comparable to those for members
of the general public.  They shall adjoin an accessible route that
also serves as a means of egress in case of emergency.  At least
one companion fixed seat shall be provided next to each wheelchair
seating area.  When the seating capacity exceeds 300, wheelchair
spaces shall be provided in more than one location.  Readily
removable seats may be installed in wheelchair spaces when the
spaces are not required to accommodate wheelchair users.  

EXCEPTION: Accessible viewing positions may be clustered for
bleachers, balconies, and other areas having sight lines that
require slopes of greater than 5 percent.  Equivalent accessible
viewing positions may be located on levels having accessible
egress.  

4.33.4 Surfaces.  The ground or floor at wheelchair locations shall
be level and shall comply with 4.5.  

4.33.5 Access to Performing Areas.  An accessible route shall
connect wheelchair seating locations with performing areas,
including stages, arena floors, dressing rooms, locker rooms, and
other spaces used by performers.  

4.33.6* Placement of Listening Systems.  If the listening system
provided serves individual fixed seats, then such seats shall be
located within a 50 ft (15 m) viewing distance of the stage or
playing area and shall have a complete view of the stage or playing
area.  

4.33.7* Types of Listening Systems.  Assistive listening systems
(ALS) are intended to augment standard public address and audio
systems by providing signals which can be received directly by
persons with special receivers or their own hearing aids and which
eliminate or filter background noise.  The type of assistive
listening system appropriate for a particular application depends
on the characteristics of the setting, the nature of the program,
and the intended audience.  Magnetic induction loops, infra-red and
radio frequency systems are types of listening systems which are
appropriate for various applications.  

4.34 Automated Teller Machines.  

4.34.1 General.  Each machine required to be accessible by 4.1.3
shall be on an accessible route and shall comply with 4.34.  

4.34.2 Controls.  Controls for user activation shall comply with
the requirements of 4.27.  

4.34.3 Clearances and Reach Range.  Free standing or built-in units
not having a clear space under them shall comply with 4.27.2 and
4.27.3 and provide for a parallel approach and both a forward and
side reach to the unit allowing a person in a wheelchair to access
the controls and dispensers.  

4.34.4 Equipment for Persons with Vision Impairments.  Instructions
and all information for use shall be made accessible to and
independently usable by persons with vision impairments.  

4.35 Dressing and Fitting Rooms.    

4.35.1 General.  Dressing and fitting rooms required to be
accessible by 4.1 shall comply with 4.35 and shall be on an
accessible route.

4.35.2 Clear Floor Space.  A clear floor space allowing a person
using a wheelchair to make a 180-degree turn shall be provided in
every accessible dressing room entered through a swinging or
sliding door.  No door shall swing into any part of the turning
space.  Turning space shall not be required in a private dressing
room entered through a curtained opening at least 32 in (815 mm)
wide if clear floor space complying with section 4.2 renders the
dressing room usable by a person using a wheelchair.

4.35.3 Doors.  All doors to accessible dressing rooms shall be in
compliance with section 4.13.

4.35.4 Bench.  Every accessible dressing room shall have a 24 in by
48 in (610 mm by 1220 mm) bench fixed to the wall along the longer
dimension.  The bench shall be mounted 17 in to 19 in (430 mm to
485 mm) above the finish floor.  Clear floor space shall be
provided alongside the bench to allow a person using a wheelchair
to make a parallel transfer onto the bench.  The structural
strength of the bench and attachments shall comply with 4.26.3. 
Where installed in conjunction with showers, swimming pools, or
other wet locations, water shall not accumulate upon the surface of
the bench and the bench shall have a slip-resistant surface.

4.35.5 Mirror.  Where mirrors are provided in dressing rooms of the
same use, then in an accessible dressing room, a full-length
mirror, measuring at least 18 in wide by 54 in high (460 mm by 1370
mm), shall be mounted in a position affording a view to a person on
the bench as well as to a person in a standing position.

NOTE: Sections 4.1.1 through 4.1.7 and sections 5 through 10 are
different from ANSI A117.1 in their entirety and are printed in
standard type.

5.  RESTAURANTS AND CAFETERIAS.  

5.1* General.  Except as specified or modified in this section,
restaurants and cafeterias shall comply with the requirements of
4.1 to 4.35.  Where fixed tables (or dining counters where food is
consumed but there is no service) are provided, at least 5 percent,
but not less than one, of the fixed tables (or a portion of the
dining counter) shall be accessible and shall comply with 4.32 as
required in 4.1.3(18).  In establishments where separate areas are
designated for smoking and non-smoking patrons, the required number
of accessible fixed tables (or counters) shall be proportionally
distributed between the smoking and non-smoking areas.  In new
construction, and where practicable in alterations, accessible
fixed tables (or counters) shall be distributed throughout the
space or facility.  

5.2 Counters and Bars.  Where food or drink is served at counters
exceeding 34 in (865 mm) in height for consumption by customers
seated on stools or standing at the counter, a portion of the main
counter which is 60 in (1525 mm) in length minimum shall be
provided in compliance with 4.32 or service shall be available at
accessible tables within the same area.

5.3 Access Aisles.  All accessible fixed tables shall be accessible
by means of an access aisle at least 36 in (915 mm) clear between
parallel edges of tables or between a wall and the table edges.

 5.4 Dining Areas.  In new construction, all dining areas,
including raised or sunken dining areas, loggias, and outdoor
seating areas, shall be accessible.  In non-elevator buildings, an
accessible means of vertical access to the mezzanine is not
required under the following conditions: 1) the area of mezzanine
seating measures no more than 33 percent of the area of the total
accessible seating area; 2) the same services and decor are
provided in an accessible space usable by the general public; and,
3) the accessible areas are not restricted to use by people with
disabilities.  In alterations, accessibility to raised or sunken
dining areas, or to all parts of outdoor seating areas is not
required provided that the same services and decor are provided in
an accessible space usable by the general public and are not
restricted to use by people with disabilities.  

5.5 Food Service Lines.  Food service lines shall have a minimum
clear width of 36 in (915 mm), with a preferred clear width of 42
in (1065 mm) to allow passage around a person using a wheelchair. 
Tray slides shall be mounted no higher than 34 in (865 mm) above
the floor (see Fig.  53).  If self-service shelves are provided, at
least 50 percent of each type must be within reach ranges specified
in 4.2.5 and 4.2.6.  

5.6 Tableware and Condiment Areas.  Self-service shelves and
dispensing devices for tableware, dishware, condiments, food and
beverages shall be installed to comply with 4.2 (see Fig.  54).

5.7 Raised Platforms.  In banquet rooms or spaces where a head
table or speaker's lectern is located on a raised platform, the
platform shall be accessible in compliance with 4.8 or 4.11.  Open
edges of a raised platform shall be protected by placement of
tables or by a curb.  

5.8 Vending Machines and Other Equipment.  Spaces for vending
machines and other equipment shall comply with 4.2 and shall be
located on an accessible route.  

5.9 Quiet Areas.  (Reserved).

6.  MEDICAL CARE FACILITIES.  

6.1 General.  Medical care facilities included in this section are
those in which people receive physical or medical treatment or care
and where persons may need assistance in responding to an emergency
and where the period of stay may exceed twenty-four hours.  In
addition to the requirements of 4.1 through 4.35, medical care
facilities and buildings shall comply with 6.

  (1) Hospitals - general purpose hospitals, psychiatric
facilities, detoxification facilities - At least 10 percent of
patient bedrooms and toilets, and all public use and common use
areas are required to be designed and constructed to be accessible. 

  (2) Hospitals and rehabilitation facilities that specialize in
treating conditions that affect mobility, or units within either
that specialize in treating conditions that affect mobility - All
patient bedrooms and toilets, and all public use and common use
areas are required to be designed and constructed to be accessible. 

  (3) Long term care facilities, nursing homes - At least 50
percent of patient bedrooms and toilets, and all public use and
common use areas are required to be designed and constructed to be
accessible.  

  (4) Alterations to patient bedrooms.  

   (a) When patient bedrooms are being added or altered as part of
a planned renovation of an entire wing, a department, or other
discrete area of an existing medical facility, a percentage of the
patient bedrooms that are being added or altered shall comply with
6.3.  The percentage of accessible rooms provided shall be
consistent with the percentage of rooms required to be accessible
by the applicable requirements of 6.1(1), 6.1(2), or 6.1(3), until
the number of accessible patient bedrooms in the facility equals
the overall number that would be required if the facility were
newly constructed.  (For example, if 20 patient bedrooms are being
altered in the obstetrics department of a hospital, 2 of the
altered rooms must be made accessible.  If, within the same
hospital, 20 patient bedrooms are being altered in a unit that
specializes in treating mobility impairments, all of the altered
rooms must be made accessible.) Where toilet/bath rooms are part of
patient bedrooms which are added or altered and required to be
accessible, each such patient toilet/bathroom shall comply with
6.4.  

  (b) When patient bedrooms are being added or altered
individually, and not as part of an alteration of the entire area,
the altered patient bedrooms shall comply with 6.3, unless either:
a) the number of accessible rooms provided in the department or
area containing the altered patient bedroom equals the number of
accessible patient bedrooms that would be required if the
percentage requirements of 6.1(1), 6.1(2), or 6.1(3) were applied
to that department or area; or b) the number of accessible patient
bedrooms in the facility equals the overall number that would be
required if the facility were newly constructed.  Where
toilet/bathrooms are part of patient bedrooms which are added or
altered and required to be accessible, each such toilet/bathroom
shall comply with 6.4.  

6.2 Entrances.  At least one accessible entrance that complies with
4.14 shall be protected from the weather by canopy or roof
overhang.  Such entrances shall incorporate a passenger loading
zone that complies with 4.6.6.

6.3 Patient Bedrooms.  Provide accessible patient bedrooms in
compliance with 4.1 through 4.35.  Accessible patient bedrooms
shall comply with the following:

  (1) Each bedroom shall have a door that complies with 4.13.

EXCEPTION: Entry doors to acute care hospital bedrooms for
in-patients shall be exempted from the requirement in 4.13.6 for
maneuvering space at the latch side of the door if the door is at
least 44 in (1120 mm) wide.

  (2) Each bedroom shall have adequate space to provide a
maneuvering space that complies with 4.2.3.  In rooms with 2 beds,
it is preferable that this space be located between beds.

  (3) Each bedroom shall have adequate space to provide a minimum
clear floor space of 36 in (915 mm) along each side of the bed and
to provide an accessible route complying with 4.3.3 to each side of
each bed.

6.4 Patient Toilet Rooms.  Where toilet/bathrooms are provided as
a part of a patient bedroom, each patient bedroom that is required
to be accessible shall have an accessible toilet/bath room that
complies with 4.22 or 4.23 and shall be on an accessible route.

7.  BUSINESS AND MERCANTILE.  

7.1 General.  In addition to the requirements of 4.1 to 4.35, the
design of all areas used for business transactions with the public
shall comply with 7.  

7.2 Sales and Service Counters, Teller Windows, Information
Counters.

  (1) In department stores and miscellaneous retail stores where
counters have cash registers and are provided for sales or
distribution of goods or services to the public, at least one of
each type shall have a portion of the counter which is at least 36
in (915 mm) in length with a maximum height of 36 in (915 mm) above
the finish floor.  It shall be on an accessible route complying
with 4.3.  The accessible counters must be dispersed throughout the
building or facility.  In alterations where it is technically
infeasible to provide an accessible counter, an auxiliary counter
meeting these requirements may be provided.

  (2) At ticketing counters, teller stations in a bank,
registration counters in hotels and motels, box office ticket
counters, and other counters that may not have a cash register but
at which goods or services are sold or distributed, either:

   (i) a portion of the main counter which is a minimum of 36 in
(915 mm) in length shall be provided with a maximum height of 36 in
(915 mm); or

   (ii) an auxiliary counter with a maximum height of 36 in (915
mm) in close proximity to the main counter shall be provided; or

   (iii) equivalent facilitation shall be provided (e.g., at a
hotel registration counter, equivalent facilitation might consist
of: (1) provision of a folding shelf attached to the main counter
on which an individual with disabilities can write, and (2) use of
the space on the side of the counter or at the concierge desk, for
handing materials back and forth).

All accessible sales and service counters shall be on an accessible
route complying with 4.3.

  (3)* Assistive Listening Devices.  (Reserved)

7.3* Check-out Aisles.  

  (1) In new construction, accessible check-out aisles shall be
provided in conformance with the table below:

Total Check-out Aisles of Each Design
Minimum Number of Accessible Check-out Aisles Of Each Design

1 - 4           1
5 - 8           2
8 - 15          3
over 15         3, plus 20% of additional aisles

EXCEPTION: In new construction, where the selling space is under
5000 square feet, only one check-out aisle is required to be
accessible.

EXCEPTION: In alterations, at least one check-out aisle shall be
accessible in facilities under 5000 square feet of selling space. 
In facilities of 5000 or more square feet of selling space, at
least one of each design of check-out aisle shall be made
accessible when altered until the number of accessible check-out
aisles of each design equals the number required in new
construction.

Examples of check-out aisles of different "design" include those
which are specifically designed to serve different functions. 
Different "design" includes but is not limited to the following
features - length of belt or no belt; or permanent signage
designating the aisle as an express lane.

  (2) Clear aisle width for accessible check-out aisles shall
comply with 4.2.1 and maximum adjoining counter height shall not
exceed 38 in (965 mm) above the finish floor.  The top of the lip
shall not exceed 40 in (1015 mm) above the finish floor.

  (3) Signage identifying accessible check-out aisles shall comply
with 4.30.7 and shall be mounted above the check-out aisle in the
same location where the check-out number or type of check-out is
displayed.

7.4 Security Bollards.  Any device used to prevent the removal of
shopping carts from store premises shall not prevent access or
egress to people in wheelchairs.  An alternate entry that is
equally convenient to that provided for the ambulatory population
is acceptable.  

8.  LIBRARIES.  

8.1 General.  In addition to the requirements of 4.1 to 4.35, the
design of all public areas of a library shall comply with 8,
including reading and study areas, stacks, reference rooms, reserve
areas, and special facilities or collections.  

8.2 Reading and Study Areas.  At least 5 percent or a minimum of
one of each element of fixed seating, tables, or study carrels
shall comply with 4.2 and 4.32.  Clearances between fixed
accessible tables and between study carrels shall comply with 4.3. 

8.3 Check-Out Areas.  At least one lane at each check-out area
shall comply with 7.2(1).  Any traffic control or book security
gates or turnstiles shall comply with 4.13.  

8.4 Card Catalogs and Magazine Displays.  Minimum clear aisle space
at card catalogs and magazine displays shall comply with Fig.  55. 
Maximum reach height shall comply with 4.2, with a height of 48 in
(1220 mm) preferred irrespective of approach allowed.  

8.5 Stacks.  Minimum clear aisle width between stacks shall comply
with 4.3, with a minimum clear aisle width of 42 in (1065 mm)
preferred where possible.  Shelf height in stack areas is
unrestricted (see Fig.  56).  

9.  ACCESSIBLE TRANSIENT LODGING.  

  (1) Except as specified in the special technical provisions of
this section, accessible transient lodging shall comply with the
applicable requirements of 4.1 through 4.35.  Transient lodging
includes facilities or portions thereof used for sleeping
accommodations, when not classed as a medical care facility.  

9.1 Hotels, Motels, Inns, Boarding Houses, Dormitories, Resorts and
Other Similar Places of Transient Lodging.

9.1.1 General.  All public use and common use areas are required to
be designed and constructed to comply with section 4 (Accessible
Elements and Spaces: Scope and Technical Requirements).

EXCEPTION: Sections 9.1 through 9.4 do not apply to an
establishment located within a building that contains not more than
five rooms for rent or hire and that is actually occupied by the
proprietor of such establishment as the residence of such
proprietor.  

9.1.2 Accessible Units, Sleeping Rooms, and Suites.  Accessible
sleeping rooms or suites that comply with the requirements of 9.2
(Requirements for Accessible Units, Sleeping Rooms, and Suites)
shall be provided in conformance with the table below.  In
addition, in hotels, of 50 or more sleeping rooms or suites,
additional accessible sleeping rooms or suites that include a
roll-in shower shall also be provided in conformance with the table
below.  Such accommodations shall comply with the requirements of
9.2, 4.21, and Figure 57(a) or (b).

Number of Rooms    Accessible Rooms    Rooms with Roll-in Showers
1 to 25                   1
26 to 50                  2
51 to 75                  3                         1
76 to 100                 4                         1
101 to 150                5                         2
151 to 200                6                         2
201 to 300                7                         3
301 to 400                8                         4
401 to 500                9                         4, plus one for 
                                                    each additional 
                                                    100 over 400
501 to 1000               2% of total
1001 and over            20 plus 1 for 
                         each 100 over 1000

9.1.3 Sleeping Accommodations for Persons with Hearing Impairments. 
In addition to those accessible sleeping rooms and suites required
by 9.1.2, sleeping rooms and suites that comply with 9.3 (Visual
Alarms, Notification Devices, and Telephones) shall be provided in
conformance with the following table:

Number of Elements     Accessible Elements 
1 to 25          1
26 to 50         2
51 to 75         3
76 to 100        4
101 to 150       5
151 to 200       6
201 to 300       7
301 to 400       8
401 to 500       9
501 to 1000      2% of total 
1001 and over    20 plus 1 for each 100 over 1000

9.1.4 Classes of Sleeping Accommodations.

  (1) In order to provide persons with disabilities a range of
options equivalent to those available to other persons served by
the facility, sleeping rooms and suites required to be accessible
by 9.1.2 shall be dispersed among the various classes of sleeping
accommodations available to patrons of the place of transient
lodging.  Factors to be considered include room size, cost,
amenities provided, and the number of beds provided.

  (2) Equivalent Facilitation.  For purposes of this section, it
shall be deemed equivalent facilitation if the operator of a
facility elects to limit construction of accessible rooms to those
intended for multiple occupancy, provided that such rooms are made
available at the cost of a single occupancy room to an individual
with disabilities who requests a single-occupancy room.

9.1.5.  Alterations to Accessible Units, Sleeping Rooms, and
Suites.  When sleeping rooms are being altered in an existing
facility, or portion thereof, subject to the requirements of this
section, at least one sleeping room or suite that complies with the
requirements of 9.2 (Requirements for Accessible Units, Sleeping
Rooms, and Suites) shall be provided for each 25 sleeping rooms, or
fraction thereof, of rooms being altered until the number of such
rooms provided equals the number required to be accessible with
9.1.2.  In addition, at least one sleeping room or suite that
complies with the requirements of 9.3 (Visual Alarms, Notification
Devices, and Telephones) shall be provided for each 25 sleeping
rooms, or fraction thereof, of rooms being altered until the number
of such rooms equals the number required to be accessible by 9.1.3.

9.2 Requirements for Accessible Units, Sleeping Rooms and Suites. 


9.2.1 General.  Units, sleeping rooms, and suites required to be
accessible by 9.1 shall comply with 9.2.  

9.2.2 Minimum Requirements.  An accessible unit, sleeping room or
suite shall be on an accessible route complying with 4.3 and have
the following accessible elements and spaces.  

  (1) Accessible sleeping rooms shall have a 36 in (915 mm) clear
width maneuvering space located along both sides of a bed, except
that where two beds are provided, this requirement can be met by
providing a 36 in (915 mm) wide maneuvering space located between
the two beds.  

  (2) An accessible route complying with 4.3 shall connect all
accessible spaces and elements, including telephones, within the
unit, sleeping room, or suite.  This is not intended to require an
elevator in multi-story units as long as the spaces identified in
9.2.2(6) and (7) are on accessible levels and the accessible
sleeping area is suitable for dual occupancy.

  (3) Doors and doorways designed to allow passage into and within
all sleeping rooms, suites or other covered units shall comply with
4.13.  

  (4) If fixed or built-in storage facilities such as cabinets,
shelves, closets, and drawers are provided in accessible spaces, at
least one of each type provided shall contain storage space
complying with 4.25.  Additional storage may be provided outside of
the dimensions required by 4.25.  

  (5) All controls in accessible units, sleeping rooms, and suites
shall comply with 4.27.  

  (6) Where provided as part of an accessible unit, sleeping room,
or suite, the following spaces shall be accessible and shall be on
an accessible route:

   (a) the living area.

   (b) the dining area.

   (c) at least one sleeping area.

   (d) patios, terraces, or balconies.  EXCEPTION: The requirements
of 4.13.8 and 4.3.8 do not apply where it is necessary to utilize
a higher door threshold or a change in level to protect the
integrity of the unit from wind/water damage.  Where this exception
results in patios, terraces or balconies that are not at an
accessible level, equivalent facilitation shall be provided. 
(e.g., Equivalent facilitation at a hotel patio or balcony might
consist of providing raised decking or a ramp to provide
accessibility).

   (e) at least one full bathroom (i.e., one with a water closet,
a lavatory, and a bathtub or shower).

   (f) if only half baths are provided, at least one half bath.  

   (g) carports, garages or parking spaces.

  (7) Kitchens, Kitchenettes, or Wet Bars.  When provided as
accessory to a sleeping room or suite, kitchens, kitchenettes, wet
bars, or similar amenities shall be accessible.  Clear floor space
for a front or parallel approach to cabinets, counters, sinks, and
appliances shall be provided to comply with 4.2.4.  Countertops and
sinks shall be mounted at a maximum height of 34 in (865 mm) above
the floor.  At least fifty percent of shelf space in cabinets or
refrigerator/freezers shall be within the reach ranges of 4.2.5 or
4.2.6 and space shall be designed to allow for the operation of
cabinet and/or appliance doors so that all cabinets and appliances
are accessible and usable.  Controls and operating mechanisms shall
comply with 4.27.  

  (8) Sleeping room accommodations for persons with hearing
impairments required by 9.1 and complying with 9.3 shall be
provided in the accessible sleeping room or suite.  

9.3 Visual Alarms, Notification Devices and Telephones.

9.3.1 General.  In sleeping rooms required to comply with this
section, auxiliary visual alarms shall be provided and shall comply
with 4.28.4.  Visual notification devices shall also be provided in
units, sleeping rooms and suites to alert room occupants of
incoming telephone calls and a door knock or bell.  Notification
devices shall not be connected to auxiliary visual alarm signal
appliances.  Permanently installed telephones shall have volume
controls complying with 4.31.5; an accessible electrical outlet
within 4 ft (1220 mm) of a telephone connection shall be provided
to facilitate the use of a text telephone.

9.3.2 Equivalent Facilitation.  For purposes of this section,
equivalent facilitation shall include the installation of
electrical outlets (including outlets connected to a facility's
central alarm system) and telephone wiring in sleeping rooms and
suites to enable persons with hearing impairments to utilize
portable visual alarms and communication devices provided by the
operator of the facility.  

9.4 Other Sleeping Rooms and Suites.  Doors and doorways designed
to allow passage into and within all sleeping units or other
covered units shall comply with 4.13.5.  

9.5 Transient Lodging in Homeless Shelters, Halfway Houses,
Transient Group Homes, and Other Social Service Establishments.  

9.5.1 New Construction.  In new construction all public use and
common use areas are required to be designed and constructed to
comply with section 4.  At least one of each type of amenity (such
as washers, dryers and similar equipment installed for the use of
occupants) in each common area shall be accessible and shall be
located on an accessible route to any accessible unit or sleeping
accommodation.  

EXCEPTION: Where elevators are not provided as allowed in 4.1.3(5),
accessible amenities are not required on inaccessible floors as
long as one of each type is provided in common areas on accessible
floors.

9.5.2 Alterations.

  (1) Social service establishments which are not homeless
shelters:

   (a) The provisions of 9.5.3 and 9.1.5 shall apply to sleeping
rooms and beds.

   (b) Alteration of other areas shall be consistent with the new
construction provisions of 9.5.1.

  (2) Homeless shelters.  If the following elements are altered,
the following requirements apply:

   (a) at least one public entrance shall allow a person with
mobility impairments to approach, enter and exit including a
minimum clear door width of 32 in (815 mm).

   (b) sleeping space for homeless persons as provided in the
scoping provisions of 9.1.2 shall include doors to the sleeping
area with a minimum clear width of 32 in (815 mm) and maneuvering
space around the beds for persons with mobility impairments
complying with 9.2.2(1).

   (c) at least one toilet room for each gender or one unisex
toilet room shall have a minimum clear door width of 32 in (815
mm), minimum turning space complying with 4.2.3, one water closet
complying with 4.16, one lavatory complying with 4.19 and the door
shall have a privacy latch; and, if provided, at least one tub or
shower shall comply with 4.20 or 4.21, respectively.

   (d) at least one common area which a person with mobility
impairments can approach, enter and exit including a minimum clear
door width of 32 in (815 mm).

   (e) at least one route connecting elements (a), (b), (c) and (d)
which a person with mobility impairments can use including minimum
clear width of 36 in (915 mm), passing space complying with 4.3.4,
turning space complying with 4.2.3 and changes in levels complying
with 4.3.8.

   (f) homeless shelters can comply with the provisions of (a)-(e)
by providing the above elements on one accessible floor.

9.5.3.  Accessible Sleeping Accommodations in New Construction. 
Accessible sleeping rooms shall be provided in conformance with the
table in 9.1.2 and shall comply with 9.2 Accessible Units, Sleeping
Rooms and Suites (where the items are provided).  Additional
sleeping rooms that comply with 9.3 Sleeping Accommodations for
Persons with Hearing Impairments shall be provided in conformance
with the table provided in 9.1.3.

In facilities with multi-bed rooms or spaces, a percentage of the
beds equal to the table provided in 9.1.2 shall comply with
9.2.2(1).

10.  TRANSPORTATION FACILITIES.  

1.  PURPOSE.

This document sets guidelines for accessibility to buildings and
facilities by individuals with disabilities under the Americans with
Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990.  These guidelines are to be applied
during the design, construction, and alteration of buildings and
facilities covered by Titles II and III of the ADA to the extent required
by regulations issued by Federal agencies, including the Department of
Justice and the Department of Transportation, under the ADA.  

                             *   *   *   *   *

10. TRANSPORTATION FACILITIES.  

10.1  General.  Every station, bus stop, bus stop pad, terminal, building
or other transportation facility, shall comply with the applicable
provisions of 4.1 through 4.35, sections 5 through 9, and the applicable
provisions of this section.  The exceptions for elevators in 4.1.3(5),
exception 1 and 4.1.6(1)(k) do not apply to a terminal, depot, or other
station used for specified public transportation, or an airport passenger
terminal, or facilities subject to Title II.  

10.2  Bus Stops and Terminals.

10.2.1  New Construction.
(1) Where new bus stop pads are constructed at bus stops, bays or other
areas where a lift or ramp is to be deployed, they shall have a firm,
stable surface;  a minimum clear length of 96 inches (measured from the
curb or vehicle roadway edge) and a minimum clear width of 60 inches
(measured parallel to the vehicle roadway) to the maximum extent allowed
by legal or site constraints; and shall be connected to streets,
sidewalks or pedestrian paths by an accessible route complying with 4.3
and 4.4.  The slope of the pad parallel to the roadway shall, to the
extent practicable, be the same as the roadway.  For water drainage, a
maximum slope of 1:50 (2%) perpendicular to the roadway is allowed.

(2) Where provided, new or replaced bus shelters shall be installed or
positioned so as to permit a wheelchair or mobility aid user to enter
from the public way and to reach a location, having a minimum clear floor
area of 30 inches by 48 inches, entirely within the perimeter of the
shelter. Such shelters shall be connected by an accessible route to the
boarding area provided under paragraph (1) of this section.

(3) Where provided, all new bus route identification signs shall comply
with 4.30.5.  In addition, to the maximum extent practicable, all new bus
route identification signs shall comply with 4.30.2 and 4.30.3.  Signs
that are sized to the maximum dimensions permitted under legitimate
local, state or federal regulations or ordinances shall be considered in
compliance with 4.30.2 and 4.30.3 for purposes of this section.

EXCEPTION:  Bus schedules, timetables, or maps that are posted at the bus
stop or bus bay are not required to comply with this provision.

10.2.2 Bus Stop Siting and Alterations.
(1) Bus stop sites shall be chosen such that, to the maximum extent
practicable, the areas where lifts or ramps are to be deployed comply
with section 10.2.1(1) and (2).

(2) When new bus route identification signs are installed or old signs
are replaced, they shall comply with the requirements of 10.2.1(3).  

10.3  Fixed Facilities and Stations.

10.3.1  New Construction.
New stations in rapid rail, light rail, commuter rail, intercity bus,
intercity rail, high speed rail, and other fixed guideway systems (e.g.,
automated guideway transit, monorails, etc.) shall comply with the
following provisions, as applicable:

(1)  Elements such as ramps, elevators or other circulation devices, fare
vending or other ticketing areas, and fare collection areas shall be
placed to minimize the distance which wheelchair users and other persons
who cannot negotiate steps may have to travel compared to the general
public.  The circulation path, including an accessible entrance and an
accessible route, for persons with disabilities shall, to the maximum
extent practicable, coincide with the circulation path for the general
public.  Where the circulation path is different, signage complying with
4.30.1, 4.30.2, 4.30.3, 4.30.5, and 4.30.7(1) shall be provided to
indicate direction to and identify the accessible entrance and accessible
route.  

(2) In lieu of compliance with 4.1.3(8), at least one entrance to each
station shall comply with 4.14, Entrances.  If different entrances to a
station serve different transportation fixed routes or groups of fixed
routes, at least one entrance serving each group or route shall comply
with 4.14, Entrances.  All accessible entrances shall, to the maximum
extent practicable, coincide with those used by the majority of the
general public.

(3) Direct connections to commercial, retail, or residential facilities
shall have an accessible route complying with 4.3 from the point of
connection to boarding platforms  and all transportation system elements
used by the public.  Any elements provided to facilitate future direct
connections shall be on an accessible route connecting boarding platforms
and all transportation system elements used by the public. 

(4) Where signs are provided at entrances to stations identifying the
station or the entrance, or both, at least one sign at each entrance
shall comply with 4.30.4 and 4.30.6.  Such signs shall be placed in
uniform locations at entrances within the transit system to the maximum
extent practicable.

EXCEPTION:  Where the station has no defined entrance, but signage is
provided, then the accessible signage shall be placed in a central
location.  

(5) Stations covered by this section shall have identification signs
complying with 4.30.1, 4.30.2, 4.30.3, and 4.30.5.  Signs shall be placed
at frequent intervals and shall be clearly visible from within the
vehicle on both sides when not obstructed by another train.  When station
identification signs are placed close to vehicle windows (i.e., on the
side opposite from boarding) each shall have the top of the highest
letter or symbol below the top of the vehicle window and the bottom of
the lowest letter or symbol above the horizontal mid-line of the vehicle
window.

(6) Lists of stations, routes, or destinations served by the station and
located on boarding areas, platforms, or mezzanines shall comply with
4.30.1, 4.30.2, 4.30.3, and 4.30.5.  A minimum of one sign identifying
the specific station and complying with 4.30.4 and 4.30.6 shall be
provided on each platform or boarding area.  All signs referenced in this
paragraph shall, to the maximum extent practicable, be placed in uniform
locations within the transit system. 

(7)* Automatic fare vending, collection and adjustment (e.g., add-fare)
systems shall comply with 4.34.2, 4.34.3, and 4.34.4.   At each
accessible entrance such devices shall be located on an accessible route. 
If self-service fare collection devices are provided for the use of the
general public, at least one accessible device for entering, and at least
one for exiting, unless one device serves both functions, shall be
provided at each accessible point of entry or exit.  Accessible fare
collection devices shall have a minimum clear opening width of 32 inches;
shall permit passage of a wheelchair; and, where provided, coin or card
slots and controls necessary for operation shall comply with 4.27.  Gates
which must be pushed open by wheelchair or mobility aid users shall have
a smooth continuous surface extending from 2 inches above the floor to
27 inches above the floor and shall comply with 4.13.  Where the
circulation path does not coincide with that used by the general public,
accessible fare collection systems shall be located at or adjacent to the
accessible point of entry or exit.

(8) Platform edges bordering a drop-off and not protected by platform
screens or guard rails shall have a detectable warning.  Such detectable
warnings shall comply with 4.29.2 and shall be 24 inches wide running the
full length of the platform drop-off.  

(9) In stations covered by this section, rail-to-platform height in new
stations shall be coordinated with the floor height of new vehicles so
that the vertical difference, measured when the vehicle is at rest, is
within plus or minus 5/8 inch under normal passenger load conditions. 
For rapid rail, light rail, commuter rail, high speed rail, and intercity
rail systems in new stations, the horizontal gap, measured when the new
vehicle is at rest, shall be no greater than 3 inches. For slow moving
automated guideway "people mover" transit systems, the horizontal gap in
new stations shall be no greater than 1 inch.

EXCEPTION 1:  Existing vehicles operating in new stations may have a
vertical difference with respect to the new platform within plus or minus
1-1/2 inches.

EXCEPTION 2:  In light rail, commuter rail and intercity rail systems
where it is not operationally or structurally feasible to meet the
horizontal gap or vertical difference requirements, mini-high platforms,
car-borne or platform-mounted lifts, ramps or bridge plates, or similar
manually deployed devices, meeting the applicable requirements of 36 CFR
part 1192, or 49 CFR part 38 shall suffice.

(10) Stations shall not be designed or constructed so as to require
persons with disabilities to board or alight from a vehicle at a location
other than one used by the general public.

(11) Illumination levels in the areas where signage is located shall be
uniform and shall minimize glare on signs.  Lighting along circulation
routes shall be of a type and configuration to provide uniform
illumination.  

(12) Text Telephones:  The following shall be provided in accordance with
4.31.9: 

      (a) If an interior public pay telephone is provided in a transit
facility (as defined by the Department of Transportation) at least one
interior public text telephone shall be provided in the station. 

      (b) Where four or more public pay telephones serve a particular
entrance to a rail station and at least one is in an interior location,
at least one interior public text telephone shall be provided to serve
that entrance.  Compliance with this section constitutes compliance
with section 4.1.3(17)(c).

(13) Where it is necessary to cross tracks to reach boarding platforms,
the route surface shall be level and flush with the rail top at the outer
edge and between the rails, except for a maximum 2-1/2 inch gap on the
inner edge of each rail to permit passage of wheel flanges. Such
crossings shall comply with 4.29.5. Where gap reduction is not
practicable, an above- grade or below-grade accessible route shall be
provided.

(14) Where public address systems are provided to convey information to
the public in terminals, stations, or other fixed facilities, a means of
conveying the same or equivalent information to persons with hearing loss
or who are deaf shall be provided.

(15) Where clocks are provided for use by the general public, the clock
face shall be uncluttered so that its elements are clearly visible. 
Hands, numerals, and/or digits shall contrast with the background either
light-on-dark or dark-on-light.  Where clocks are mounted overhead,
numerals and/or digits shall comply with 4.30.3. Clocks shall be placed
in uniform locations throughout the facility and system to the maximum
extent practicable.

(16) Where provided in below grade stations, escalators shall have a
minimum clear width of 32 inches.  At the top and bottom of each
escalator run, at least two contiguous treads shall be level beyond the
comb plate before the risers begin to form.  All escalator treads shall
be marked by a strip of clearly contrasting color, 2 inches in width,
placed parallel to and on the nose of each step.  The strip shall be of
a material that is at least as slip resistant as the remainder of the
tread. The edge of the tread shall be apparent from both ascending and
descending directions.

(17)  Where provided, elevators shall be glazed or have transparent
panels to allow an unobstructed view both in to and out of the car. 
Elevators shall comply with 4.10.

EXCEPTION: Elevator cars with a clear floor area in which a 60 inch
diameter circle can be inscribed may be substituted for the minimum car
dimensions of 4.10, Fig. 22.

(18) Where provided, ticketing areas shall permit persons with
disabilities to obtain a ticket and check baggage and shall comply with
7.2.

(19) Where provided, baggage check-in and retrieval systems shall be on
an accessible route complying with 4.3, and shall have space immediately
adjacent complying with 4.2.  If unattended security barriers are
provided, at least one gate shall comply with 4.13.  Gates which must be
pushed open by wheelchair or mobility aid users shall have a smooth
continuous surface extending from 2 inches above the floor to 27 inches
above the floor.

10.3.2  Existing Facilities: Key Stations. (1) Rapid, light and commuter
rail key stations, as defined under criteria established by the
Department of Transportation in subpart C of 49 CFR part 37 and existing
intercity rail stations shall provide at least one accessible route from
an accessible entrance to those areas necessary for use of the
transportation system. 

(2) The accessible route required by 10.3.2(1) shall include the features
specified in 10.3.1 (1), (4)-(9), (11)-(15), and (17)-(19).

(3) Where technical infeasibility in existing stations requires the
accessible route to lead from the public way to a paid area of the
transit system, an accessible fare collection system, complying with
10.3.1(7), shall be provided along such accessible route.

(4)  In light rail, rapid rail and commuter rail key stations, the
platform or a portion thereof and
the vehicle floor shall be coordinated so that the vertical difference,
measured when the vehicle is at rest, within plus or minus 1-1/2 inches
under all normal passenger load conditions, and the horizontal gap,
measured when the vehicle is at rest, is no greater than 3 inches for at
least one door of each vehicle or car required to be accessible by 49 CFR
part 37.

EXCEPTION 1: Existing vehicles retrofitted to meet the requirements of
49 CFR 37.93 (one- car-per-train rule) shall be coordinated with the
platform such that, for at least one door, the vertical difference
between the vehicle floor and the platform, measured when the vehicle is
at rest with 50% normal passenger capacity, is within plus or minus 2
inches and the horizontal gap is no greater than 4 inches.

EXCEPTION 2:  Where it is not structurally or operationally feasible to
meet the horizontal gap or vertical difference requirements, mini-high
platforms, car-borne or platform mounted lifts, ramps or bridge plates,
or similar manually deployed devices, meeting the applicable requirements
of 36 CFR Part 1192 shall suffice.

(5) New direct connections to commercial, retail, or residential
facilities shall, to the maximum extent feasible, have an accessible
route complying with 4.3 from the point of connection to boarding
platforms and all transportation system elements used by the public.  Any
elements provided to facilitate future direct connections shall be on an
accessible route connecting boarding platforms and all transportation
system elements used by the public.    

10.3.3 Existing Facilities: Alterations.  (1) For the purpose of
complying with 4.1.6(2) Alterations to an Area Containing a Primary
Function, an area of primary function shall be as defined by applicable
provisions of 49 CFR 37.43(c) (Department of Transportation's ADA Rule)
or 28 CFR 36.403 (Department of Justice's ADA Rule).

10.4.  Airports.

10.4.1  New Construction.
(1) Elements such as ramps, elevators or other vertical circulation
devices, ticketing areas, security checkpoints, or passenger waiting
areas shall be placed to minimize the distance which wheelchair users and
other persons who cannot negotiate steps may have to travel compared to
the general public. 

(2) The circulation path, including an accessible entrance and an
accessible route, for persons with disabilities shall, to the maximum
extent practicable, coincide with the circulation path for the general
public.  Where the circulation path is different, directional signage
complying with 4.30.1, 4.30.2, 4.30.3 and 4.30.5 shall be provided which
indicates the location of the nearest accessible entrance and its
accessible route.     

(3) Ticketing areas shall permit persons with disabilities to obtain a
ticket and check baggage and shall comply with 7.2.

(4) Where public pay telephones are provided, and at least one is at an
interior location, a public text telephone shall be provided in
compliance with 4.31.9.  Additionally, if four or more public pay
telephones are located in any of the following locations, at least one
public text telephone shall also be provided in that location: 

      (a)  a main terminal outside the security areas;
      (b)  a concourse within the security areas; or
      (c)  a baggage claim area in a terminal.

Compliance with this section constitutes compliance with section
4.1.3(17)(c).

(5) Baggage check-in and retrieval systems shall be on an accessible
route complying with 4.3, and shall have space immediately adjacent
complying with 4.2.4.  If unattended security barriers are provided, at
least one gate shall comply with 4.13.  Gates which must be pushed open
by wheelchair or mobility aid users shall have a smooth continuous
surface extending from 2 inches above the floor to 27 inches above the
floor.

(6) Terminal information systems which broadcast information to the
general public through a public address system shall provide a means to
provide the same or equivalent information to persons with a hearing loss
or who are deaf.  Such methods may include, but are not limited to,
visual paging systems using video monitors and computer technology.  For
persons with certain types of hearing loss such methods may include, but
are not limited to, an assistive listening system complying with 4.33.7.

(7) Where clocks are provided for use by the general public the clock
face shall be uncluttered so that its elements are clearly visible. 
Hands, numerals, and/or digits shall contrast with their background
either light-on-dark or dark-on-light.  Where clocks are mounted
overhead, numerals and/or digits shall comply with 4.30.3.  Clocks shall
be placed in uniform locations throughout the facility to the maximum
extent practicable.  

(8) Security Systems.  [Reserved]

10.5 Boat and Ferry Docks.  [Reserved]

                               *  *  *  *  *


APPENDIX

This appendix contains materials of an advisory nature and provides
additional information that should help the reader to understand
the minimum requirements of the guidelines or to design buildings
or facilities for greater accessibility.  The paragraph numbers
correspond to the sections or paragraphs of the guideline to which
the material relates and are therefore not consecutive (for
example, A4.2.1 contains additional information relevant to 4.2.1). 
Sections of the guidelines for which additional material appears in
this appendix have been indicated by an asterisk.  Nothing in this
appendix shall in any way obviate any obligation to comply with the
requirements of the guidelines itself.

A2.2 Equivalent Facilitation.  Specific examples of equivalent
facilitation are found in the following sections:

4.1.6(3)(c) Elevators in Alterations
4.31.9 Text Telephones
7.2  Sales and Service Counters, Teller Windows, Information
     Counters
9.1.4 Classes of Sleeping Accommodations
9.2.2(6)(d) Requirements for Accessible Units, Sleeping Rooms, and
      Suites

A4.1.1 Application.

A4.1.1(3) Areas Used Only by Employees as Work Areas.  Where there
are a series of individual work stations of the same type (e.g.,
laboratories, service counters, ticket booths), 5%, but not less
than one, of each type of work station should be constructed so
that an individual with disabilities can maneuver within the work
stations.  Rooms housing individual offices in a typical office
building must meet the requirements of the guidelines concerning
doors, accessible routes, etc.  but do not need to allow for
maneuvering space around individual desks.  Modifications required
to permit maneuvering within the work area may be accomplished as
a reasonable accommodation to individual employees with
disabilities under Title I of the ADA.  Consideration should also
be given to placing shelves in employee work areas at a convenient
height for accessibility or installing commercially available
shelving that is adjustable so that reasonable accommodations can
be made in the future.

If work stations are made accessible they should comply with the
applicable provisions of 4.2 through 4.35.  

A4.1.2 Accessible Sites and Exterior Facilities: New Construction.

A4.1.2(5)(e) Valet parking is not always usable by individuals with
disabilities.  For instance, an individual may use a type of
vehicle controls that render the regular controls inoperable or the
driver's seat in a van may be removed.  In these situations,
another person cannot park the vehicle.  It is recommended that
some self-parking spaces be provided at valet parking facilities
for individuals whose vehicles cannot be parked by another person
and that such spaces be located on an accessible route to the
entrance of the facility.

A4.1.3 Accessible Buildings: New Construction.  

A4.1.3(5) Only full passenger elevators are covered by the
accessibility provisions of 4.10.  Materials and equipment hoists,
freight elevators not intended for passenger use, dumbwaiters, and
construction elevators are not covered by these guidelines.  If a
building is exempt from the elevator requirement, it is not
necessary to provide a platform lift or other means of vertical
access in lieu of an elevator.

Under Exception 4, platform lifts are allowed where existing
conditions make it impractical to install a ramp or elevator.  Such
conditions generally occur where it is essential to provide access
to small raised or lowered areas where space may not be available
for a ramp.  Examples include, but are not limited to, raised
pharmacy platforms, commercial offices raised above a sales floor,
or radio and news booths.

A4.1.3(9) Supervised automatic sprinkler systems have built in
signals for monitoring features of the system such as the opening
and closing of water control valves, the power supplies for needed
pumps, water tank levels, and for indicating conditions that will
impair the satisfactory operation of the sprinkler system.  Because
of these monitoring features, supervised automatic sprinkler
systems have a high level of satisfactory performance and response
to fire conditions.

A4.1.3(10) If an odd number of drinking fountains is provided on a
floor, the requirement in 4.1.3(10)(b) may be met by rounding down
the odd number to an even number and calculating 50% of the even
number.  When more than one drinking fountain on a floor is
required to comply with 4.15, those fountains should be dispersed
to allow wheelchair users convenient access.  For example, in a
large facility such as a convention center that has water fountains
at several locations on a floor, the accessible water fountains
should be located so that wheelchair users do not have to travel a
greater distance than other people to use a drinking fountain.

A4.1.3(17)(b) In addition to the requirements of section 

4.1.3(17)(b), the installation of additional volume controls is
encouraged.  Volume controls may be installed on any telephone.

A4.1.3(19)(a) Readily removable or folding seating units may be
installed in lieu of providing an open space for wheelchair users. 
Folding seating units are usually two fixed seats that can be
easily folded into a fixed center bar to allow for one or two open
spaces for wheelchair users when necessary.  These units are more
easily adapted than removable seats which generally require the
seat to be removed in advance by the facility management.

Either a sign or a marker placed on seating with removable or
folding arm rests is required by this section.  Consideration
should be given for ensuring identification of such seats in a
darkened theater.  For example, a marker which contrasts (light on
dark or dark on light) and which also reflects light could be
placed on the side of such seating so as to be visible in a lighted
auditorium and also to reflect light from a flashlight.

A4.1.6 Accessible Buildings: Alterations.

A4.1.6(1)(h) When an entrance is being altered, it is preferable
that those entrances being altered be made accessible to the extent
feasible.

A4.2 Space Allowances and Reach Ranges.  

A4.2.1 Wheelchair Passage Width.  

  (1) Space Requirements for Wheelchairs.  Many persons who use
wheelchairs need a 30 in (760 mm) clear opening width for doorways,
gates, and the like, when the latter are entered head-on.  If the
person is unfamiliar with a building, if competing traffic is
heavy, if sudden or frequent movements are needed, or if the
wheelchair must be turned at an opening, then greater clear widths
are needed.  For most situations, the addition of an inch of leeway
on either side is sufficient.  Thus, a minimum clear width of 32 in
(815 mm) will provide adequate clearance.  However, when an opening
or a restriction in a passageway is more than 24 in (610 mm) long,
it is essentially a passageway and must be at least 36 in (915 mm)
wide.  

  (2) Space Requirements for Use of Walking Aids.  Although people
who use walking aids can maneuver through clear width openings of
32 in (815 mm), they need 36 in (915 mm) wide passageways and walks
for comfortable gaits.  Crutch tips, often extending down at a wide
angle, are a hazard in narrow passageways where they might not be
seen by other pedestrians.  Thus, the 36 in (915 mm) width provides
a safety allowance both for the person with a disability and for
others.

  (3) Space Requirements for Passing.  Able-bodied persons in
winter clothing, walking straight ahead with arms swinging, need 32
in (815 mm) of width, which includes 2 in (50 mm) on either side
for sway, and another 1 in (25 mm) tolerance on either side for
clearing nearby objects or other pedestrians.  Almost all
wheelchair users and those who use walking aids can also manage
within this 32 in (815 mm) width for short distances.  Thus, two
streams of traffic can pass in 64 in (1625 mm) in a comfortable
flow.  Sixty inches (1525 mm) provides a minimum width for a
somewhat more restricted flow.  If the clear width is less than 60
in (1525 mm), two wheelchair users will not be able to pass but
will have to seek a wider place for passing.  Forty-eight inches
(1220 mm) is the minimum width needed for an ambulatory person to
pass a nonambulatory or semi-ambulatory person.  Within this 48 in
(1220 mm) width, the ambulatory person will have to twist to pass
a wheelchair user, a person with a service animal, or a
semi-ambulatory person.  There will be little leeway for swaying or
missteps (see Fig.  A1).  

A4.2.3 Wheelchair Turning Space.  These guidelines specify a
minimum space of 60 in (1525 mm) diameter or a 60 in by 60 in (1525
mm by 1525 mm) T-shaped space for a pivoting 180- degree turn of a
wheelchair.  This space is usually satisfactory for turning around,
but many people will not be able to turn without repeated tries and
bumping into surrounding objects.  The space shown in Fig.  A2 will
allow most wheelchair users to complete U-turns without difficulty. 

A4.2.4 Clear Floor or Ground Space for Wheelchairs.  The wheelchair
and user shown in Fig.  A3 represent typical dimensions for a large
adult male.  The space requirements in this guideline are based
upon maneuvering clearances that will accommodate most wheelchairs. 
Fig.  A3 provides a uniform reference for design not covered by
this guideline.

A4.2.5 & A4.2.6 Reach.  Reach ranges for persons seated in
wheelchairs may be further clarified by Fig.  A3(a).  These
drawings approximate in the plan view the information shown in Fig. 
4, 5, and 6.

A4.3 Accessible Route.  

A4.3.1 General.  

  (1) Travel Distances.  Many people with mobility impairments can
move at only very slow speeds; for many, traveling 200 ft (61 m)
could take about 2 minutes.  This assumes a rate of about 1.5 ft/s
(455 mm/s) on level ground.  It also assumes that the traveler
would move continuously.  However, on trips over 100 ft (30 m),
disabled people are apt to rest frequently, which substantially
increases their trip times.  Resting periods of 2 minutes for every
100 ft (30 m) can be used to estimate travel times for people with
severely limited stamina.  In inclement weather, slow progress and
resting can greatly increase a disabled person's exposure to the
elements.  

  (2) Sites.  Level, indirect routes or those with running slopes
lower than 1:20 can sometimes provide more convenience than direct
routes with maximum allowable slopes or with ramps.

A4.3.10 Egress.  Because people with disabilities may visit, be
employed or be a resident in any building, emergency management
plans with specific provisions to ensure their safe evacuation also
play an essential role in fire safety and life safety.

A4.3.11.3 Stairway Width.  A 48 in (1220 mm) wide exit stairway is
needed to allow assisted evacuation (e.g., carrying a person in a
wheelchair) without encroaching on the exit path for ambulatory
persons.

A4.3.11.4 Two-way Communication.  It is essential that emergency
communication not be dependent on voice communications alone
because the safety of people with hearing or speech impairments
could be jeopardized.  The visible signal requirement could be
satisfied with something as simple as a button in the area of
rescue assistance that lights, indicating that help is on the way,
when the message is answered at the point of entry.

A4.4 Protruding Objects.  

A4.4.1 General.  Service animals are trained to recognize and avoid
hazards.  However, most people with severe impairments of vision
use the long cane as an aid to mobility.  The two principal cane
techniques are the touch technique, where the cane arcs from side
to side and touches points outside both shoulders; and the diagonal
technique, where the cane is held in a stationary position
diagonally across the body with the cane tip touching or just above
the ground at a point outside one shoulder and the handle or grip
extending to a point outside the other shoulder.  The touch
technique is used primarily in uncontrolled areas, while the
diagonal technique is used primarily in certain limited,
controlled, and familiar environments.  Cane users are often
trained to use both techniques.  

Potential hazardous objects are noticed only if they fall within
the detection range of canes (see Fig.  A4).  Visually impaired
people walking toward an object can detect an overhang if its
lowest surface is not higher than 27 in (685 mm).  When walking
alongside protruding objects, they cannot detect overhangs.  Since
proper cane and service animal techniques keep people away from the
edge of a path or from walls, a slight overhang of no more than 4
in (100 mm) is not hazardous.  

A4.5 Ground and Floor Surfaces.

A4.5.1 General.  People who have difficulty walking or maintaining
balance or who use crutches, canes, or walkers, and those with
restricted gaits are particularly sensitive to slipping and
tripping hazards.  For such people, a stable and regular surface is
necessary for safe walking, particularly on stairs.  Wheelchairs
can be propelled most easily on surfaces that are hard, stable, and
regular.  Soft loose surfaces such as shag carpet, loose sand or
gravel, wet clay, and irregular surfaces such as cobblestones can
significantly impede wheelchair movement.

Slip resistance is based on the frictional force necessary to keep
a shoe heel or crutch tip from slipping on a walking surface under
conditions likely to be found on the surface.  While the dynamic
coefficient of friction during walking varies in a complex and
non-uniform way, the static coefficient of friction, which can be
measured in several ways, provides a close approximation of the
slip resistance of a surface.  Contrary to popular belief, some
slippage is necessary to walking, especially for persons with
restricted gaits; a truly "non-slip" surface could not be
negotiated.  

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration recommends that
walking surfaces have a static coefficient of friction of 0.5.  A
research project sponsored by the Architectural and Transportation
Barriers Compliance Board (Access Board) conducted tests with
persons with disabilities and concluded that a higher coefficient
of friction was needed by such persons.  A static coefficient of
friction of 0.6 is recommended for accessible routes and 0.8 for
ramps.  

It is recognized that the coefficient of friction varies
considerably due to the presence of contaminants, water, floor
finishes, and other factors not under the control of the designer
or builder and not subject to design and construction guidelines
and that compliance would be difficult to measure on the building
site.  Nevertheless, many common building materials suitable for
flooring are now labeled with information on the static coefficient
of friction.  While it may not be possible to compare one product
directly with another, or to guarantee a constant measure, builders
and designers are encouraged to specify materials with appropriate
values.  As more products include information on slip resistance,
improved uniformity in measurement and specification is likely. 
The Access Board's advisory guidelines on Slip Resistant Surfaces
provides additional information on this subject.

Cross slopes on walks and ground or floor surfaces can cause
considerable difficulty in propelling a wheelchair in a straight
line.  

A4.5.3 Carpet.  Much more needs to be done in developing both
quantitative and qualitative criteria for carpeting (i.e., problems
associated with texture and weave need to be studied).  However,
certain functional characteristics are well established.  When both
carpet and padding are used, it is desirable to have minimum
movement (preferably none) between the floor and the pad and the
pad and the carpet which would allow the carpet to hump or warp. 
In heavily trafficked areas, a thick, soft (plush) pad or cushion,
particularly in combination with long carpet pile, makes it
difficult for individuals in wheelchairs and those with other
ambulatory disabilities to get about.  Firm carpeting can be
achieved through proper selection and combination of pad and
carpet, sometimes with the elimination of the pad or cushion, and
with proper installation.  Carpeting designed with a weave that
causes a zig-zag effect when wheeled across is strongly
discouraged.

A4.6 Parking and Passenger Loading Zones.  

A4.6.3 Parking Spaces.  The increasing use of vans with
side-mounted lifts or ramps by persons with disabilities has
necessitated some revisions in specifications for parking spaces
and adjacent access aisles.  The typical accessible parking space
is 96 in (2440 mm) wide with an adjacent 60 in (1525 mm) access
aisle.  However, this aisle does not permit lifts or ramps to be
deployed and still leave room for a person using a wheelchair or
other mobility aid to exit the lift platform or ramp.  In tests
conducted with actual lift/van/wheelchair combinations, (under a
Board-sponsored Accessible Parking and Loading Zones Project)
researchers found that a space and aisle totaling almost 204 in
(5180 mm) wide was needed to deploy a lift and exit conveniently. 
The "van accessible" parking space required by these guidelines
provides a 96 in (2440 mm) wide space with a 96 in (2440 mm)
adjacent access aisle which is just wide enough to maneuver and
exit from a side mounted lift.  If a 96 in (2440 mm) access aisle
is placed between two spaces, two "van accessible" spaces are
created.  Alternatively, if the wide access aisle is provided at
the end of a row (an area often unused), it may be possible to
provide the wide access aisle without additional space (see Fig. 
A5(a)).

A sign is needed to alert van users to the presence of the wider
aisle, but the space is not intended to be restricted only to vans.

"Universal" Parking Space Design.  An alternative to the provision
of a percentage of spaces with a wide aisle, and the associated
need to include additional signage, is the use of what has been
called the "universal" parking space design.  Under this design,
all accessible spaces are 132 in (3350 mm) wide with a 60 in (1525
mm) access aisle (see Fig.  A5(b)).  One advantage to this design
is that no additional signage is needed because all spaces can
accommodate a van with a side-mounted lift or ramp.  Also, there is
no competition between cars and vans for spaces since all spaces
can accommodate either.  Furthermore, the wider space permits
vehicles to park to one side or the other within the 132 in (3350
mm) space to allow persons to exit and enter the vehicle on either
the driver or passenger side, although, in some cases, this would
require exiting or entering without a marked access aisle.

An essential consideration for any design is having the access
aisle level with the parking space.  Since a person with a
disability, using a lift or ramp, must maneuver within the access
aisle, the aisle cannot include a ramp or sloped area.  The access
aisle must be connected to an accessible route to the appropriate
accessible entrance of a building or facility.  The parking access
aisle must either blend with the accessible route or have a curb
ramp complying with 4.7.  Such a curb ramp opening must be located
within the access aisle boundaries, not within the parking space
boundaries.  Unfortunately, many facilities are designed with a
ramp that is blocked when any vehicle parks in the accessible
space.  Also, the required dimensions of the access aisle cannot be
restricted by planters, curbs or wheel stops.

A4.6.4 Signage.  Signs designating parking places for disabled
people can be seen from a driver's seat if the signs are mounted
high enough above the ground and located at the front of a parking
space.  

A4.6.5 Vertical Clearance.  High-top vans, which disabled people or
transportation services often use, require higher clearances in
parking garages than automobiles.  

A4.8 Ramps.  

A4.8.1 General.  Ramps are essential for wheelchair users if
elevators or lifts are not available to connect different levels. 
However, some people who use walking aids have difficulty with
ramps and prefer stairs.  

A4.8.2 Slope and Rise.  Ramp slopes between 1:16 and 1:20 are
preferred.  The ability to manage an incline is related to both its
slope and its length.  Wheelchair users with disabilities affecting
their arms or with low stamina have serious difficulty using
inclines.  Most ambulatory people and most people who use
wheelchairs can manage a slope of 1:16.  Many people cannot manage
a slope of 1:12 for 30 ft (9 m).

A4.8.4 Landings.  Level landings are essential toward maintaining
an aggregate slope that complies with these guidelines.  A ramp
landing that is not level causes individuals using wheelchairs to
tip backward or bottom out when the ramp is approached.

A4.8.5 Handrails.  The requirements for stair and ramp handrails in
this guideline are for adults.  When children are principal users
in a building or facility, a second set of handrails at an
appropriate height can assist them and aid in preventing accidents. 

A4.9 Stairs.

A4.9.1 Minimum Number.  Only interior and exterior stairs
connecting levels that are not connected by an elevator, ramp, or
other accessible means of vertical access have to comply with 4.9.

A4.10 Elevators.  

A4.10.6 Door Protective and Reopening Device.  The required door
reopening device would hold the door open for 20 seconds if the
doorway remains obstructed.  After 20 seconds, the door may begin
to close.  However, if designed in accordance with ASME A17.1-1990,
the door closing movement could still be stopped if a person or
object exerts sufficient force at any point on the door edge.  

A4.10.7 Door and Signal Timing for Hall Calls.  This paragraph
allows variation in the location of call buttons, advance time for
warning signals, and the door-holding period used to meet the time
requirement.

A4.10.12 Car Controls.  Industry-wide standardization of elevator
control panel design would make all elevators significantly more
convenient for use by people with severe visual impairments.  In
many cases, it will be possible to locate the highest control on
elevator panels within 48 in (1220 mm) from the floor.  

A4.10.13 Car Position Indicators.  A special button may be provided
that would activate the audible signal within the given elevator
only for the desired trip, rather than maintaining the audible
signal in constant operation.  

A4.10.14 Emergency Communications.  A device that requires no
handset is easier to use by people who have difficulty reaching. 
Also, small handles on handset compartment doors are not usable by
people who have difficulty grasping.

Ideally, emergency two-way communication systems should provide
both voice and visual display intercommunication so that persons
with hearing impairments and persons with vision impairments can
receive information regarding the status of a rescue.  A voice
intercommunication system cannot be the only means of communication
because it is not accessible to people with speech and hearing
impairments.  While a voice intercommunication system is not
required, at a minimum, the system should provide both an audio and
visual indication that a rescue is on the way.

A4.11 Platform Lifts (Wheelchair Lifts).

A4.11.2 Other Requirements.  Inclined stairway chairlifts, and
inclined and vertical platform lifts (wheelchair lifts) are
available for short-distance, vertical transportation of people
with disabilities.  Care should be taken in selecting lifts as some
lifts are not equally suitable for use by both wheelchair users and
semi-ambulatory individuals.

A4.12 Windows.

A4.12.1 General.  Windows intended to be operated by occupants in
accessible spaces should comply with 4.12.

A4.12.2 Window Hardware.  Windows requiring pushing, pulling, or
lifting to open (for example, double-hung, sliding, or casement and
awning units without cranks) should require no more than 5 lbf
(22.2 N) to open or close.  Locks, cranks, and other window
hardware should comply with 4.27.

A4.13 Doors.  

A4.13.8 Thresholds at Doorways.  Thresholds and surface height
changes in doorways are particularly inconvenient for wheelchair
users who also have low stamina or restrictions in arm movement
because complex maneuvering is required to get over the level
change while operating the door.  

A4.13.9 Door Hardware.  Some disabled persons must push against a
door with their chair or walker to open it.  Applied kickplates on
doors with closers can reduce required maintenance by withstanding
abuse from wheelchairs and canes.  To be effective, they should
cover the door width, less approximately 2 in (51 mm), up to a
height of 16 in (405 mm) from its bottom edge and be centered
across the width of the door.  

A4.13.10 Door Closers.  Closers with delayed action features give
a person more time to maneuver through doorways.  They are
particularly useful on frequently used interior doors such as
entrances to toilet rooms.  

A4.13.11 Door Opening Force.  Although most people with
disabilities can exert at least 5 lbf (22.2N), both pushing and
pulling from a stationary position, a few people with severe
disabilities cannot exert 3 lbf (13.13N).  Although some people
cannot manage the allowable forces in this guideline and many
others have difficulty, door closers must have certain minimum
closing forces to close doors satisfactorily.  Forces for pushing
or pulling doors open are measured with a push-pull scale under the
following conditions:

  (1) Hinged doors: Force applied perpendicular to the door at the
door opener or 30 in (760 mm) from the hinged side, whichever is
farther from the hinge.  

  (2) Sliding or folding doors: Force applied parallel to the door
at the door pull or latch.  

  (3) Application of force: Apply force gradually so that the
applied force does not exceed the resistance of the door.  In
high-rise buildings, air-pressure differentials may require a
modification of this specification in order to meet the functional
intent.  

A4.13.12 Automatic Doors and Power-Assisted Doors.  Sliding
automatic doors do not need guard rails and are more convenient for
wheelchair users and visually impaired people to use.  If slowly
opening automatic doors can be reactivated before their closing
cycle is completed, they will be more convenient in busy doorways. 

A4.15 Drinking Fountains and Water Coolers.  

A4.15.2 Spout Height.  Two drinking fountains, mounted side by side
or on a single post, are usable by people with disabilities and
people who find it difficult to bend over.  

A4.16 Water Closets.  

A4.16.3 Height.  Height preferences for toilet seats vary
considerably among disabled people.  Higher seat heights may be an
advantage to some ambulatory disabled people, but are often a
disadvantage for wheelchair users and others.  Toilet seats 18 in
(455 mm) high seem to be a reasonable compromise.  Thick seats and
filler rings are available to adapt standard fixtures to these
requirements.  

A4.16.4 Grab Bars.  Fig.  A6(a) and (b) show the diagonal and side
approaches most commonly used to transfer from a wheelchair to a
water closet.  Some wheelchair users can transfer from the front of
the toilet while others use a 90-degree approach.  Most people who
use the two additional approaches can also use either the diagonal
approach or the side approach.  

A4.16.5 Flush Controls.  Flush valves and related plumbing can be
located behind walls or to the side of the toilet, or a toilet seat
lid can be provided if plumbing fittings are directly behind the
toilet seat.  Such designs reduce the chance of injury and
imbalance caused by leaning back against the fittings.  Flush
controls for tank-type toilets have a standardized mounting
location on the left side of the tank (facing the tank).  Tanks can
be obtained by special order with controls mounted on the right
side.  If administrative authorities require flush controls for
flush valves to be located in a position that conflicts with the
location of the rear grab bar, then that bar may be split or
shifted toward the wide side of the toilet area.  

A4.17 Toilet Stalls.

A4.17.3 Size and Arrangement.  This section requires use of the 60
in (1525 mm) standard stall (Figure 30(a)) and permits the 36 in
(915 mm) or 48 in (1220 mm) wide alternate stall (Figure 30(b))
only in alterations where provision of the standard stall is
technically infeasible or where local plumbing codes prohibit
reduction in the number of fixtures.  A standard stall provides a
clear space on one side of the water closet to enable persons who
use wheelchairs to perform a side or diagonal transfer from the
wheelchair to the water closet.  However, some persons with
disabilities who use mobility aids such as walkers, canes or
crutches are better able to use the two parallel grab bars in the
36 in (915 mm) wide alternate stall to achieve a standing position.

 In large toilet rooms, where six or more toilet stalls are
provided, it is therefore required that a 36 in (915 mm) wide stall
with parallel grab bars be provided in addition to the standard
stall required in new construction.  The 36 in (915 mm) width is
necessary to achieve proper use of the grab bars; wider stalls
would position the grab bars too far apart to be easily used and
narrower stalls would position the grab bars too close to the water
closet.  Since the stall is primarily intended for use by persons
using canes, crutches and walkers, rather than wheelchairs, the
length of the stall could be conventional.  The door, however, must
swing outward to ensure a usable space for people who use crutches
or walkers.

A4.17.5 Doors.  To make it easier for wheelchair users to close
toilet stall doors, doors can be provided with closers, spring
hinges, or a pull bar mounted on the inside surface of the door
near the hinge side.  

A4.19 Lavatories and Mirrors.  

A4.19.6 Mirrors.  If mirrors are to be used by both ambulatory
people and wheelchair users, then they must be at least 74 in (1880
mm) high at their topmost edge.  A single full length mirror can
accommodate all people, including children.  

A4.21 Shower Stalls.  

A4.21.1 General.  Shower stalls that are 36 in by 36 in (915 mm by
915 mm) wide provide additional safety to people who have
difficulty maintaining balance because all grab bars and walls are
within easy reach.  Seated people use the walls of 36 in by 36 in
(915 mm by 915 mm) showers for back support.  Shower stalls that
are 60 in (1525 mm) wide and have no curb may increase usability of
a bathroom by wheelchair users because the shower area provides
additional maneuvering space.  

A4.22 Toilet Rooms.  

A4.22.3 Clear Floor Space.  In many small facilities, single-user
restrooms may be the only facilities provided for all building
users.  In addition, the guidelines allow the use of "unisex" or
"family" accessible toilet rooms in alterations when technical
infeasibility can be demonstrated.  Experience has shown that the
provision of accessible "unisex" or single-user restrooms is a
reasonable way to provide access for wheelchair users and any
attendants, especially when attendants are of the opposite sex. 
Since these facilities have proven so useful, it is often
considered advantageous to install a "unisex" toilet room in new
facilities in addition to making the multi-stall restrooms
accessible, especially in shopping malls, large auditoriums, and
convention centers.

Figure 28 (section 4.16) provides minimum clear floor space
dimensions for toilets in accessible "unisex" toilet rooms.  The
dotted lines designate the minimum clear floor space, depending on
the direction of approach, required for wheelchair users to
transfer onto the water closet.  The dimensions of 48 in (1220 mm)
and 60 in (1525 mm), respectively, correspond to the space required
for the two common transfer approaches utilized by wheelchair users
(see Fig.  A6).  It is important to keep in mind that the placement
of the lavatory to the immediate side of the water closet will
preclude the side approach transfer illustrated in Figure A6(b). 
To accommodate the side transfer, the space adjacent to the water
closet must remain clear of obstruction for 42 in (1065 mm) from
the centerline of the toilet (Figure 28) and the lavatory must not
be located within this clear space.  A turning circle or T-turn,
the clear floor space at the lavatory, and maneuvering space at the
door must be considered when determining the possible wall
locations.  A privacy latch or other accessible means of ensuring
privacy during use should be provided at the door.  

RECOMMENDATIONS:

1.  In new construction, accessible single-user restrooms may be
desirable in some situations because they can accommodate a wide
variety of building users.  However, they cannot be used in lieu of
making the multi-stall toilet rooms accessible as required.

2.  Where strict compliance to the guidelines for accessible toilet
facilities is technically infeasible in the alteration of existing
facilities, accessible "unisex" toilets are a reasonable
alternative.

3.  In designing accessible single-user restrooms, the provisions
of adequate space to allow a side transfer will provide
accommodation to the largest number of wheelchair users.  

A4.23 Bathrooms, Bathing Facilities, and Shower Rooms.  

A4.23.3 Clear Floor Space.  Figure A7 shows two possible
configurations of a toilet room with a roll-in shower.  The
specific shower shown is designed to fit exactly within the
dimensions of a standard bathtub.  Since the shower does not have
a lip, the floor space can be used for required maneuvering space. 
This would permit a toilet room to be smaller than would be
permitted with a bathtub and still provide enough floor space to be
considered accessible.  This design can provide accessibility in
facilities where space is at a premium (i.e., hotels and medical
care facilities).  The alternate roll-in shower (Fig.  57b) also
provides sufficient room for the "T-turn" and does not require
plumbing to be on more than one wall.  

A4.23.9 Medicine Cabinets.  Other alternatives for storing medical
and personal care items are very useful to disabled people. 
Shelves, drawers, and floor-mounted cabinets can be provided within
the reach ranges of disabled people.  

A4.26 Handrails, Grab Bars, and Tub and Shower Seats.  

A4.26.1 General.  Many disabled people rely heavily upon grab bars
and handrails to maintain balance and prevent serious falls.  Many
people brace their forearms between supports and walls to give them
more leverage and stability in maintaining balance or for lifting. 
The grab bar clearance of 1-1/2 in (38 mm) required in this
guideline is a safety clearance to prevent injuries resulting from
arms slipping through the openings.  It also provides adequate
gripping room.

 A4.26.2 Size and Spacing of Grab Bars and Handrails.  This
specification allows for alternate shapes of handrails as long as
they allow an opposing grip similar to that provided by a circular
section of 1-1/4 in to 1-1/2 in (32 mm to 38 mm).  

A4.27 Controls and Operating Mechanisms.  

A4.27.3 Height.  Fig.  A8 further illustrates mandatory and
advisory control mounting height provisions for typical equipment. 

Electrical receptacles installed to serve individual appliances and
not intended for regular or frequent use by building occupants are
not required to be mounted within the specified reach ranges. 
Examples would be receptacles installed specifically for
wall-mounted clocks, refrigerators, and microwave ovens.

A4.28 Alarms.  

A4.28.2 Audible Alarms.  Audible emergency signals must have an
intensity and frequency that can attract the attention of
individuals who have partial hearing loss.  People over 60 years of
age generally have difficulty perceiving frequencies higher than
10,000 Hz.  An alarm signal which has a periodic element to its
signal, such as single stroke bells (clang-pause- clang-pause),
hi-low (up-down-up-down) and fast whoop (on-off-on-off) are best. 
Avoid continuous or reverberating tones.  Select a signal which has
a sound characterized by three or four clear tones without a great
deal of "noise" in between.

A4.28.3 Visual Alarms.  The specifications in this section do not
preclude the use of zoned or coded alarm systems.  

A4.28.4 Auxiliary Alarms.  Locating visual emergency alarms in
rooms where persons who are deaf may work or reside alone can
ensure that they will always be warned when an emergency alarm is
activated.  To be effective, such devices must be located and
oriented so that they will spread signals and reflections
throughout a space or raise the overall light level sharply. 
However, visual alarms alone are not necessarily the best means to
alert sleepers.  A study conducted by Underwriters Laboratory (UL)
concluded that a flashing light more than seven times brighter was
required (110 candela v.  15 candela, at the same distance) to
awaken sleepers as was needed to alert awake subjects in a normal
daytime illuminated room.

For hotel and other rooms where people are likely to be asleep, a
signal-activated vibrator placed between mattress and box spring or
under a pillow was found by UL to be much more effective in
alerting sleepers.  Many readily available devices are
sound-activated so that they could respond to an alarm clock, clock
radio, wake-up telephone call or room smoke detector.  Activation
by a building alarm system can either be accomplished by a separate
circuit activating an auditory alarm which would, in turn, trigger
the vibrator or by a signal transmitted through the ordinary
110-volt outlet.  Transmission of signals through the power line is
relatively simple and is the basis of common, inexpensive remote
light control systems sold in many department and electronic stores
for home use.  So-called "wireless" intercoms operate on the same
principal.

A4.29 Detectable Warnings.  

A4.29.2 Detectable Warnings on Walking Surfaces.  The material used
to provide contrast should contrast by at least 70%.  Contrast in
percent is determined by:

                      Contrast = [(B1 - B2)/B1] x 100

where B1 = light reflectance value (LRV) of the lighter area and B2
= light reflectance value (LRV) of the darker area.

Note that in any application both white and black are never
absolute; thus, B1 never equals 100 and B2 is always greater than
0.

A4.30 Signage.  

A4.30.1 General.  In building complexes where finding locations
independently on a routine basis may be a necessity (for example,
college campuses), tactile maps or prerecorded instructions can be
very helpful to visually impaired people.  Several maps and
auditory instructions have been developed and tested for specific
applications.  The type of map or instructions used must be based
on the information to be communicated, which depends highly on the
type of buildings or users.  

Landmarks that can easily be distinguished by visually impaired
individuals are useful as orientation cues.  Such cues include
changes in illumination level, bright colors, unique patterns, wall
murals, location of special equipment or other architectural
features.

Many people with disabilities have limitations in movement of their
heads and reduced peripheral vision.  Thus, signage positioned
perpendicular to the path of travel is easiest for them to notice. 
People can generally distinguish signage within an angle of 30
degrees to either side of the centerlines of their faces without
moving their heads.  

A4.30.2 Character Proportion.  The legibility of printed characters
is a function of the viewing distance, character height, the ratio
of the stroke width to the height of the character, the contrast of
color between character and background, and print font.  The size
of characters must be based upon the intended viewing distance.  A
severely nearsighted person may have to be much closer to recognize
a character of a given size than a person with normal visual
acuity.  

A4.30.4 Raised and Brailled Characters and Pictorial Symbol Signs
(Pictograms).  The standard dimensions for literary Braille are as
follows:

Dot diameter                                 .059 in.
Inter-dot spacing                            .090 in.
Horizontal separation between cells          .241 in.
Vertical separation between cells            .395 in.

Raised borders around signs containing raised characters may make
them confusing to read unless the border is set far away from the
characters.  Accessible signage with descriptive materials about
public buildings, monuments, and objects of cultural interest may
not provide sufficiently detailed and meaningful information. 
Interpretive guides, audio tape devices, or other methods may be
more effective in presenting such information.  

A4.30.5 Finish and Contrast.  An eggshell finish (11 to 19 degree
gloss on 60 degree glossimeter) is recommended.  Research indicates
that signs are more legible for persons with low vision when
characters contrast with their background by at least 70 percent. 
Contrast in percent shall be determined by:

Contrast = [(B1 - B2)/B1] x 100

where B1 = light reflectance value (LRV) of the lighter area and B2
= light reflectance value (LRV) of the darker area.

Note that in any application both white and black are never
absolute; thus, B1 never equals 100 and B2 is always greater than
0.

The greatest readability is usually achieved through the use of
light-colored characters or symbols on a dark background.  

A4.30.7 Symbols of Accessibility for Different Types of Listening
Systems.  Paragraph 4 of this section requires signage indicating
the availability of an assistive listening system.  An appropriate
message should be displayed with the international symbol of access
for hearing loss since this symbol conveys general accessibility
for people with hearing loss.  Some suggestions are:

INFRARED ASSISTIVE LISTENING SYSTEM AVAILABLE
      --PLEASE ASK--

AUDIO LOOP IN USE TURN T-SWITCH FOR BETTER HEARING
          --OR ASK FOR HELP--

FM ASSISTIVE LISTENING SYSTEM AVAILABLE
              --PLEASE ASK--

The symbol may be used to notify persons of the availability of
other auxiliary aids and services such as: real time captioning,
captioned note taking, sign language interpreters, and oral
interpreters.

A4.30.8 Illumination Levels.  Illumination levels on the sign
surface shall be in the 100 to 300 lux range (10 to 30 footcandles)
and shall be uniform over the sign surface.  Signs shall be located
such that the illumination level on the surface of the sign is not
significantly exceeded by the ambient light or visible bright
lighting source behind or in front of the sign.

A4.31 Telephones.  

A4.31.3 Mounting Height.  In localities where the dial-tone first
system is in operation, calls can be placed at a coin telephone
through the operator without inserting coins.  The operator button
is located at a height of 46 in (1170 mm) if the coin slot of the
telephone is at 54 in (1370 mm).  A generally available public
telephone with a coin slot mounted lower on the equipment would
allow universal installation of telephones at a height of 48 in
(1220 mm) or less to all operable parts.  

A4.31.9 Text Telephones.  A public text telephone may be an
integrated text telephone pay phone unit or a conventional portable
text telephone that is permanently affixed within, or adjacent to,
the telephone enclosure.  In order to be usable with a pay phone,
a text telephone which is not a single integrated text telephone
pay phone unit will require a shelf large enough (10 in (255mm)
wide by 10 in (255 mm) deep with a 6 in (150 mm) vertical clearance
minimum) to accommodate the device, an electrical outlet, and a
power cord.  Movable or portable text telephones may be used to
provide equivalent facilitation.  A text telephone should be
readily available so that a person using it may access the text
telephone easily and conveniently.  As currently designed
pocket-type text telephones for personal use do not accommodate a
wide range of users.  Such devices would not be considered
substantially equivalent to conventional text telephones.  However,
in the future as technology develops this could change.

A4.32 Fixed or Built-in Seating and Tables.

A4.32.4 Height of Tables or Counters.  Different types of work
require different table or counter heights for comfort and optimal
performance.  Light detailed work such as writing requires a table
or counter close to elbow height for a standing person.  Heavy
manual work such as rolling dough requires a counter or table
height about 10 in (255 mm) below elbow height for a standing
person.  This principle of high/low table or counter heights also
applies for seated persons; however, the limiting condition for
seated manual work is clearance under the table or counter.

Table A1 shows convenient counter heights for seated persons.  The
great variety of heights for comfort and optimal performance
indicates a need for alternatives or a compromise in height if
people who stand and people who sit will be using the same counter
area.  

TABLE A1
CONVENIENT HEIGHTS OF TABLES AND COUNTERS FOR SEATED PEOPLEa
(SHORT WOMEN - in, mm)      [TALL MEN - in, mm]

Seated in a wheelchair:
Manual work: Desk or removable armrests    (26, 660)   [30, 760] 
Fixed, full-size armrests b       (32c, 815)   [32c, 815]
Light, detailed work:                       
Desk or removable armrests     (29, 735)   [34, 865]
Fixed,full-size armrests b     (323, 815)  [34, 865]
Seated in a 16 in(405 mm) high chair:
Manual work    (26, 660)  [27, 685]
Light, detailed work  (28, 710)  [31, 785]

aAll dimensions are based on a work-surface thickness of 1 1/2 in
(38 mm) and a clearance of 1 1/2 in (38 mm) between legs and the
underside of a work surface.  

bThis type of wheelchair arm does not interfere with the
positioning of a wheelchair under a work surface.  

cThis dimension is limited by the height of the armrests: a lower
height would be preferable.  Some people in this group prefer lower
work surfaces, which require positioning the wheelchair back from
the edge of the counter.  

A4.33 Assembly Areas.  

A4.33.2 Size of Wheelchair Locations.  Spaces large enough for two
wheelchairs allow people who are coming to a performance together
to sit together.     

A4.33.3 Placement of Wheelchair Locations.  The location of
wheelchair areas can be planned so that a variety of positions
within the seating area are provided.  This will allow choice in
viewing and price categories.  

Building/life safety codes set minimum distances between rows of
fixed seats with consideration of the number of seats in a row, the
exit aisle width and arrangement, and the location of exit doors. 
"Continental" seating, with a greater number of seats per row and
a commensurate increase in row spacing and exit doors, facilitates
emergency egress for all people and increases ease of access to
mid-row seats especially for people who walk with difficulty. 
Consideration of this positive attribute of "continental" seating
should be included along with all other factors in the design of
fixed seating areas.

A4.33.6 Placement of Listening Systems.  A distance of 50 ft (15 m)
allows a person to distinguish performers' facial expressions.  

A4.33.7 Types of Listening Systems.  An assistive listening system
appropriate for an assembly area for a group of persons or where
the specific individuals are not known in advance, such as a
playhouse, lecture hall or movie theater, may be different from the
system appropriate for a particular individual provided as an
auxiliary aid or as part of a reasonable accommodation.  The
appropriate device for an individual is the type that individual
can use, whereas the appropriate system for an assembly area will
necessarily be geared toward the "average" or aggregate needs of
various individuals.  A listening system that can be used from any
seat in a seating area is the most flexible way to meet this
specification.  Earphone jacks with variable volume controls can
benefit only people who have slight hearing loss and do not help
people who use hearing aids.  At the present time, magnetic
induction loops are the most feasible type of listening system for
people who use hearing aids equipped with "T- coils," but people
without hearing aids or those with hearing aids not equipped with
inductive pick-ups cannot use them without special receivers. 
Radio frequency systems can be extremely effective and inexpensive. 
People without hearing aids can use them, but people with hearing
aids need a special receiver to use them as they are presently
designed.  If hearing aids had a jack to allow a by-pass of
microphones, then radio frequency systems would be suitable for
people with and without hearing aids.  Some listening systems may
be subject to interference from other equipment and feedback from
hearing aids of people who are using the systems.  Such
interference can be controlled by careful engineering design that
anticipates feedback sources in the surrounding area.

Table A2, reprinted from a National Institute of Disability and
Rehabilitation Research "Rehab Brief," shows some of the advantages
and disadvantages of different types of assistive listening
systems.  In addition, the Architectural and Transportation
Barriers Compliance Board (Access Board) has published a pamphlet
on Assistive Listening Systems which lists demonstration centers
across the country where technical assistance can be obtained in
selecting and installing appropriate systems.  The state of New
York has also adopted a detailed technical specification which may
be useful.

Table A2.  Summary of Assistive Listening Devices

System       Induction Loop  Transmitter: Transducer wired to
induction loop around listening area.   Receiver: Self- contained
induction receiver or personal hearing aid with telecoil.

Advantages: Cost-Effective; Low Maintenance; Easy to use;
Unobtrusive; May be possible to integrate into existing public
address system.  Some hearing aids can function as receivers.  

Disadvantages: Signal spills over to adjacent rooms; Susceptible to
electrical interference; Limited portability; Inconsistent signal
strength; Head position affects signal strength;  Lack of standards
for induction coil performance.

Typical Applications: Meeting areas; Theaters; Churches and
Temples; Conference rooms; Classrooms; TV viewing.

System  FM Transmitter: Flashlight-sized worn by speaker. 
Receiver: With personal hearing aid via DAI or induction neck-loop
and telecoil; or self- contained with earphone(s).Highly portable

Advantages: Different channels allow use by different groups within
the same room.  High user mobility; Variable for large range of
hearing losses.

Disadvantages: High cost of receivers; Equipment fragile; Equipment
obtrusive; High maintenance; Expensive to maintain; Custom fitting
to individual user may be required.

Typical Applications: Classrooms; Tour groups; Meeting areas;
Outdoor events; One-on- one.

System Infrared Transmitter: Emitter in line-of-sight with
receiver.  Receiver: Self-contained.  Or with personal hearing aid
via DAI or induction neckloop and telecoil.

Advantages: Easy to use; Insures privacy or confidentiality;
Moderate cost; Can often be integrated into existing public address
system.

Disadvantages: Line-of-sight required between emitter and receiver. 
Ineffective outdoors; Limited portability; Requires installation.

Typical Applications: Theaters; Churches and Temples; Auditoriums;
Meetings requiring confidentiality; TV viewing.

Source: Rehab Brief, National Institute on Disability and
Rehabilitation Research, Washington, DC, Vol.  XII, No.  10,
(1990).

A5.0 Restaurants and Cafeterias.

A5.1 General.  Dining counters (where there is no service) are
typically found in small carry- out restaurants, bakeries, or
coffee shops and may only be a narrow eating surface attached to a
wall.  This section requires that where such a dining counter is
provided, a portion of the counter shall be at the required
accessible height.

A7.0 Business and Mercantile.

A7.2(3) Assistive Listening Devices.  At all sales and service
counters, teller windows, box offices, and information kiosks where
a physical barrier separates service personnel and customers, it is
recommended that at least one permanently installed assistive
listening device complying with 4.33 be provided at each location
or series.  Where assistive listening devices are installed,
signage should be provided identifying those stations which are so
equipped.

A7.3 Check-out Aisles.  Section 7.2 refers to counters without
aisles; section 7.3 concerns check-out aisles.  A counter without
an aisle (7.2) can be approached from more than one direction such
as in a convenience store.  In order to use a check-out aisle
(7.3), customers must enter a defined area (an aisle) at a
particular point, pay for goods, and exit at a particular point.


A10.3 Fixed Facilities and Stations.

A10.3.1(7) Route Signs.  One means of making control buttons on fare
vending machines usable by persons with vision impairments is to raise
them above the surrounding surface.  Those activated by a mechanical
motion are likely to be more detectable.  If farecard vending,
collection, and adjustment devices are designed to accommodate farecards
having one tactually distinctive corner, then a person who has a vision
impairment will insert the card with greater ease.  Token collection
devices that are designed to accommodate tokens which are perforated can
allow a person to distinguish more readily between tokens and common
coins.  Thoughtful placement of accessible gates and fare vending
machines in relation to inaccessible devices will make their use and
detection easier for all persons with disabilities.  



PART 1192 -- AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY
GUIDELINES FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES
Subpart A -- General
Sec.
1192.1 Purpose.
1192.2 Equivalent facilitation.
1192.3 Definitions. 
1192.4 Miscellaneous instructions.

Subpart B -- Buses, Vans and Systems
1192.21 General. 
1192.23 Mobility aid accessibility. 
1192.25 Doors, steps and thresholds. 
1192.27 Priority seating signs. 
1192.29 Interior circulation, handrails and stanchions. 
1192.31 Lighting. 
1192.33 Fare box. 
1192.35 Public information system. 
1192.37 Stop request. 
1192.39 Destination and route signs. 

Subpart C -- Rapid Rail Vehicles and Systems
1192.51 General. 
1192.53 Doorways. 
1192.55 Priority seating signs. 
1192.57 Interior circulation, handrails and stanchions. 
1192.59 Floor surfaces. 
1192.61 Public information system. 
1192.63 Between-car barriers.

Subpart D -- Light Rail Vehicles and Systems
1192.71 General. 
1192.73 Doorways.
1192.75 Priority seating signs. 
1192.77 Interior circulation, handrails and stanchions.  
1192.79 Floors, steps and thresholds.  
1192.81 Lighting.  
1192.83 Mobility aid accessibility. 
1192.85 Between-car barriers.
1192.87 Public information system. 

Subpart E -- Commuter Rail Cars and Systems
1192.91 General.
1192.93 Doorways. 
1192.95 Mobility aid accessibility. 
1192.97 Interior circulation, handrails and stanchions. 
1192.99 Floors, steps and thresholds.  
1192.101 Lighting.  
1192.103 Public information system. 
1192.105 Priority seating signs. 
1192.107 Restrooms.
1192.109  Between-car barriers.

Subpart F -- Intercity Rail Cars and Systems
1192.111 General.
1192.113 Doorways. 
1192.115 Interior circulation, handrails and stanchions. 
1192.117 Floors, steps and thresholds.  
1192.119 Lighting.  
1192.121 Public information system.
1192.123 Restrooms. 
1192.125 Mobility aid accessibility. 
1192.127 Sleeping compartments.

Subpart G -- Over-the-Road Buses and Systems
1192.151 General. 
1192.153 Doors, steps and thresholds. 
1192.155 Interior circulation, handrails and stanchions. 
1192.157 Lighting. 
1192.159 Mobility aid accessibility.  [Reserved]


Subpart H -- Other Vehicles and Systems
1192.171 General. 
1192.173 Automated guideway transit vehicles and systems.
1192.175 High-speed rail cars, monorails and systems.
1192.177 Ferries, excursion boats and other vessels. [Reserved] 
1192.179 Trams, similar vehicles, and systems.

Figures in Part 1192
Appendix to Part 1192 -- Advisory Guidance

Authority:  Americans With Disabilities Act of 1990, Pub. L. 101-336,
104 Stat. 370 (42 U.S.C. 12204).Subpart A -- General

Section 1192.1 Purpose.
      This part provides minimum guidelines and requirements for
accessibility standards to be issued by the Department of
Transportation in 49 CFR part 37 for transportation vehicles required
to be accessible by the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990,
42 U.S.C. 12101 et seq.

Section 1192.2 Equivalent facilitation.
      Departures from particular technical and scoping requirements of
these guidelines by use of other designs and technologies are
permitted where the alternative designs and technologies used will
provide substantially equivalent or greater access to and usability of
the vehicle.  Departures are to be considered on a case-by-case basis
by the Department of Transportation under the procedure set forth in
49 CFR 37.7.

Section 1192.3 Definitions. 
      Accessible means, with respect to vehicles covered by this part,
compliance with the provisions of this part.

      Automated guideway transit (AGT) system means a fixed-guideway
transportation system which operates with automated (driverless)
individual vehicles or multi-car trains. Service may be on a fixed
schedule or in response to a passenger-activated call button. Such
systems using small, slow moving vehicles, often operated  in airports
and amusement parks, are sometimes called "people movers".

      Bus means any of several types of self-propelled vehicles, other
than an over-the-road bus, generally rubber tired, intended for use on
city streets, highways, and busways, including but not limited to
minibuses, forty- and thirty-foot transit buses, articulated buses,
double-deck buses, and electric powered trolley buses, used to provide
designated or specified public transportation services. Self-
propelled, rubber tire vehicles designed to look like antique or
vintage trolleys or street cars are considered buses. 

      Common wheelchairs and mobility aids means belonging to a class
of three or four wheeled devices, usable indoors, designed for and
used by persons with mobility impairments which do not exceed 30
inches in width and 48 inches in length, measured 2 inches above the
ground, and do not weigh more than 600 pounds when occupied.

      Commuter rail car means a rail passenger car obtained by a
commuter authority (as defined by 49 CFR 37.3) for use in commuter
rail transportation.

      Commuter rail transportation means short-haul rail passenger
service operating in metropolitan and suburban areas, operated by a
commuter authority whether within or across the geographical
boundaries of a state, usually characterized by reduced fare, multiple
ride, and commutation tickets and by morning and evening peak period
operations. This term does not include light or rapid rail
transportation.

      Demand responsive system means any system of transporting
individuals, including the provision of designated public
transportation service by public entities and the provision of
transportation service by private entities, including but not limited
to specified public transportation service, which is not a fixed route
system.

      Designated public transportation means transportation provided by
a public entity (other than public school transportation) by bus,
rail, or other conveyance (other than transportation by aircraft or
intercity or commuter rail transportation) that provides the general
public with general or special service, including charter service, on
a regular and continuing basis.

      Fixed route system means a system of transporting individuals
(other than by aircraft), including the provision of designated public
transportation service by public entities and the provision of
transportation service by private entities, including but not limited
to specified public transportation service, on which a vehicle is
operated along a prescribed route according to a fixed schedule.

      High speed rail means an intercity-type rail service which
operates primarily on a dedicated guideway or track not used,for the
most part, by freight, including, but not limited to, trains on welded
rail, magnetically levitated (maglev) vehicles on a special guideway,
or other advanced technology vehicles, designed to travel at speeds in
excess of those possible on other types of railroads.

      Intercity rail passenger car means a rail car intended for use by
revenue passengers obtained by the National Railroad Passenger
Corporation (Amtrak) for use in intercity rail transportation.

      Intercity rail transportation means transportation provided by
Amtrak.

      Light rail means a streetcar-type vehicle railway operated on
city streets, semi-private rights-of-way, or exclusive private rights-
of-way. Service may be provided by step-entry vehicles or by level-
boarding.

      New vehicle means a vehicle which is offered for sale or lease
after manufacture without any prior use.

      Over-the-road bus means a vehicle characterized by an elevated
passenger deck located over a baggage compartment.

      Rapid rail means a subway-type transit vehicle railway operated
on exclusive private rights-of-way with high-level platform stations.
Rapid rail may also operate on elevated or at-grade level track
separated from other traffic.

      Remanufactured vehicle means a vehicle which has been
structurally restored and has had new or rebuilt major components
installed to extend its service life.

      Specified public transportation means transportation by bus,
rail, or any other conveyance (other than aircraft) provided by a
private entity to the general public, with general or special service
(including charter service) on a regular and continuing basis.

      Tram means any of several types of motor vehicles consisting of a
tractor unit, with or without passenger accommodations, and one or
more passenger trailer units, including but not limited to vehicles
providing shuttle service to remote parking areas, between hotels and
other public accommodations, and between and within amusement parks
and other recreation areas.

      Used vehicle means a vehicle with prior use.

Section 1192.4 Miscellaneous instructions.
      (a)  Dimensional conventions. Dimensions that are not noted as
minimum or maximum are absolute.
      (b)  Dimensional tolerances. All dimensions are subject to
conventional engineering tolerances for material properties and field
conditions, including normal anticipated wear not exceeding accepted
industry-wide standards and practices.
      (c)  Notes. The text of these guidelines does not contain notes
or footnotes. Additional information, explanations, and advisory
materials are located in the Appendix. 
      (d)  General terminology.  The terms used in this part shall have
the following meanings:
      (1) Comply with means meet one or more specification of these
guidelines.
      (2) If, or if...then denotes a specification that applies only
when the conditions described are present.
      (3) May denotes an option or alternative.
      (4) Shall denotes a mandatory specification or requirement.
      (5) Should denotes an advisory specification or recommendation
and is used only in the appendix to this part.

Subpart B -- Buses, Vans and Systems

Section 1192.21 General. 
      (a) New, used or remanufactured buses and vans (except over-the-
road buses covered by subpart G of this part), to be considered
accessible by regulations issued by the Department of Transportation
in 49 CFR part 37, shall comply with the applicable provisions of this
subpart. 

      (b) If portions of the vehicle are modified in a way that affects
or could affect accessibility, each such portion shall comply, to the
extent practicable, with the applicable provisions of this subpart.
This provision does not require that inaccessible buses be retrofitted
with lifts, ramps or other boarding devices.

Section 1192.23 Mobility aid accessibility. 
      (a) General.  All vehicles covered by this subpart shall provide
a level-change mechanism or boarding device (e.g., lift or ramp)
complying with paragraph (b) or (c) of this section and sufficient
clearances to permit a wheelchair or other mobility aid user to reach
a securement location. At least two securement locations and devices,
complying with paragraph (d) of this section, shall be provided on
vehicles in excess of 22 feet in length; at least one securement
location and device, complying with paragraph (d) of this section,
shall be provided on vehicles 22 feet in length or less. 

      (b) Vehicle lift. - (1) Design load.  The design load of the lift
shall be at least 600 pounds.  Working parts, such as cables, pulleys,
and shafts, which can be expected to wear, and upon which the lift
depends for support of the load, shall have a safety factor of at
least six, based on the ultimate strength of the material. Nonworking
parts, such as platform, frame, and attachment hardware which would
not be expected to wear, shall have a safety factor of at least three,
based on the ultimate strength of the material.

      (2) Controls. - (i) Requirements.  The controls shall be
interlocked with the vehicle brakes, transmission, or door, or shall
provide other appropriate mechanisms or systems, to ensure that the
vehicle cannot be moved when the lift is not stowed and so the lift
cannot be deployed unless the interlocks or systems are engaged. The
lift shall deploy to all levels (i.e., ground, curb, and intermediate
positions) normally encountered in the operating environment. Where
provided, each control for deploying, lowering, raising, and stowing
the lift and lowering the roll-off barrier shall be of a momentary
contact type requiring continuous manual pressure by the operator and
shall not allow improper lift sequencing when the lift platform is
occupied. The controls shall allow reversal of the lift operation
sequence, such as raising or lowering a platform that is part way
down, without allowing an occupied platform to fold or retract into
the stowed position.

      (ii) Exception.  Where the lift is designed to deploy with its
long dimension parallel to the vehicle axis and which pivots into or
out of the vehicle while occupied (i.e., "rotary lift"), the
requirements of this paragraph prohibiting the lift from being stowed
while occupied shall not apply if the stowed position is within the
passenger compartment and the lift is intended to be stowed while
occupied. 

      (3) Emergency operation.  The lift shall incorporate an emergency
method of deploying, lowering to ground level with a lift occupant,
and raising and stowing the empty lift if the power to the lift fails.
No emergency method, manual or otherwise, shall be capable of being
operated in a manner that could be hazardous to the lift occupant or
to the operator when operated according to manufacturer's
instructions, and shall not permit the platform to be stowed or folded
when occupied, unless the lift is a rotary lift and is intended to be
stowed while occupied. 

      (4) Power or equipment failure.  Platforms stowed in a vertical
position, and deployed platforms when occupied, shall have provisions
to prevent their deploying, falling, or folding any faster than 12
inches/second or their dropping of an occupant in the event of a
single failure of any load carrying component. 

      (5) Platform barriers.  The lift platform shall be equipped with
barriers to prevent any of the wheels of a wheelchair or mobility aid
from rolling off the platform during its operation. A movable barrier
or inherent design feature shall prevent a wheelchair or mobility aid
from rolling off the edge closest to the vehicle until the platform is
in its fully raised position. Each side of the lift platform which
extends beyond the vehicle in its raised position shall have a barrier
a minimum 1-1/2 inches high. Such barriers shall not interfere with
maneuvering into or out of the aisle. The loading-edge barrier (outer
barrier) which functions as a loading ramp when the lift is at ground
level, shall be sufficient when raised or closed, or a supplementary
system shall be provided, to prevent a power wheelchair or mobility
aid from riding over or defeating it. The outer barrier of the lift
shall automatically raise or close, or a supplementary system shall
automatically engage, and remain raised, closed, or engaged at all
times that the platform is more than 3 inches above the roadway or
sidewalk and the platform is occupied. Alternatively, a barrier or
system may be raised, lowered, opened, closed, engaged, or disengaged
by the lift operator, provided an interlock or inherent design feature
prevents the lift from rising unless the barrier is raised or closed
or the supplementary system is engaged.

      (6) Platform surface.  The platform surface shall be free of any
protrusions over 1/4 inch high and shall be slip resistant. The
platform shall have a minimum clear width of 28-1/2 inches at the
platform, a minimum clear width of 30 inches measured from 2 inches
above the platform surface to 30 inches above the platform, and a
minimum clear length of 48 inches measured from 2 inches above the
surface of the platform to 30 inches above the surface of the
platform. (See Fig. 1)

      (7) Platform gaps.  Any openings between the platform surface and
the raised barriers shall not exceed 5/8 inch in width. When the
platform is at vehicle floor height with the inner barrier (if
applicable) down or retracted, gaps between the forward lift platform
edge and the vehicle floor shall not exceed 1/2 inch horizontally and
5/8 inch vertically. Platforms on semi-automatic lifts may have a hand
hold not exceeding 1-1/2 inches by 4-1/2 inches located between the
edge barriers.

      (8) Platform entrance ramp.  The entrance ramp, or loading-edge
barrier used as a ramp, shall not exceed a slope of 1:8, measured on
level ground, for a maximum rise of 3 inches, and the transition from
roadway or sidewalk to ramp may be vertical without edge treatment up
to 1/4 inch. Thresholds between 1/4 inch and 1/2 inch high shall be
beveled with a slope no greater than 1:2.

      (9) Platform deflection.  The lift platform (not including the
entrance ramp) shall not deflect more than 3 degrees (exclusive of
vehicle roll or pitch) in any direction between its unloaded position
and its position when loaded with 600 pounds applied through a 26 inch
by 26 inch test pallet at the centroid of the platform.

      (10) Platform movement.  No part of the platform shall move at a
rate exceeding 6 inches/second during lowering and lifting an
occupant, and shall not exceed 12 inches/second during deploying or
stowing. This requirement does not apply to the deployment or stowage
cycles of lifts that are manually deployed or stowed. The maximum
platform horizontal and vertical acceleration when occupied shall be
0.3g.

      (11) Boarding direction.  The lift shall permit both inboard and
outboard facing of wheelchair and mobility aid users.

      (12) Use by standees.  Lifts shall accommodate persons using
walkers, crutches, canes or braces or who otherwise have difficulty
using steps. The platform may be marked to indicate a preferred
standing position.

      (13) Handrails.  Platforms on lifts shall be equipped with
handrails on two sides, which move in tandem with the lift, and which
shall be graspable and provide support to standees throughout the
entire lift operation. Handrails shall have a usable component at
least 8 inches long with the lowest portion a minimum 30 inches above
the platform and the highest portion a maximum 38 inches above the
platform. The handrails shall be capable of withstanding a force of
100 pounds concentrated at any point on the handrail without permanent
deformation of the rail or its supporting structure. The handrail
shall have a cross-sectional diameter between 1-1/4 inches and 1-1/2
inches or shall provide an equivalent grasping surface, and have eased
edges with corner radii of not less than 1/8 inch. Handrails shall be
placed to provide a minimum 1-1/2 inches knuckle clearance from the
nearest adjacent surface. Handrails shall not interfere with
wheelchair or mobility aid maneuverability when entering or leaving
the vehicle. 

      (c) Vehicle ramp. - (1) Design load.  Ramps 30 inches or longer
shall support a load of 600 pounds, placed at the centroid of the ramp
distributed over an area of 26 inches by 26 inches, with a safety
factor of at least 3 based on the ultimate strength of the material.
Ramps shorter than 30 inches shall support a load of 300 pounds.

      (2) Ramp surface.  The ramp surface shall be continuous and slip
resistant; shall not have protrusions from the surface greater than
1/4 inch high; shall have a clear width of 30 inches; and shall
accommodate both four-wheel and three-wheel mobility aids.

      (3) Ramp threshold.  The transition from roadway or sidewalk and
the transition from vehicle floor to the ramp may be vertical without
edge treatment up to 1/4 inch. Changes in level between 1/4 inch and
1/2 inch shall be beveled with a slope no greater than 1:2.

      (4) Ramp barriers.  Each side of the ramp shall have barriers at
least 2 inches high to prevent mobility aid wheels from slipping off.

      (5) Slope.  Ramps shall have the least slope practicable and
shall not exceed 1:4 when deployed to ground level. If the height of
the vehicle floor from which the ramp is deployed is 3 inches or less
above a 6-inch curb, a maximum slope of 1:4 is permitted; if the
height of the vehicle floor from which the ramp is deployed is 6
inches or less, but greater than 3 inches, above a 6-inch curb, a
maximum slope of 1:6 is permitted; if the height of the vehicle floor
from which the ramp is deployed is 9 inches or less, but greater than
6 inches, above a 6-inch curb, a maximum slope of 1:8 is permitted; if
the height of the vehicle floor from which the ramp is deployed is
greater than 9 inches above a 6-inch curb, a slope of 1:12 shall be
achieved. Folding or telescoping ramps are permitted provided they
meet all structural requirements of this section.

      6) Attachment.  When in use for boarding or alighting, the ramp
shall be firmly attached to the vehicle so that it is not subject to
displacement when loading or unloading a heavy power mobility aid and
that no gap between vehicle and ramp exceeds 5/8 inch.

      (7) Stowage.  A compartment, securement system, or other
appropriate method shall be provided to ensure that stowed ramps,
including portable ramps stowed in the passenger area, do not impinge
on a passenger's wheelchair or mobility aid or pose any hazard to
passengers in the event of a sudden stop or maneuver.

      (8) Handrails.  If provided, handrails shall allow persons with
disabilities to grasp them from outside the vehicle while starting to
board, and to continue to use them throughout the boarding process,
and shall have the top between 30 inches and 38 inches above the ramp
surface. The handrails shall be capable of withstanding a force of 100
pounds concentrated at any point on the handrail without permanent
deformation of the rail or its supporting structure. The handrail
shall have a cross-sectional diameter between 1-1/4 inches and 1-1/2
inches or shall provide an equivalent grasping surface, and have eased
edges with corner radii of not less than 1/8 inch. Handrails shall not
interfere with wheelchair or mobility aid maneuverability when
entering or leaving the vehicle.  

      (d) Securement devices. - (1) Design load. Securement systems on
vehicles with GVWRs of 30,000 pounds or above, and their attachments
to such vehicles, shall restrain a force in the forward longitudinal
direction of up to 2,000 pounds per securement leg or clamping
mechanism and a minimum of 4,000 pounds for each mobility aid.
Securement systems on vehicles with GVWRs of up to 30,000 pounds, and
their attachments to such vehicles, shall restrain a force in the
forward longitudinal direction of up to 2,500 pounds per securement
leg or clamping mechanism and a minimum of 5,000 pounds for each
mobility aid. 
      (2) Location and size.  The securement system shall be placed as
near to the accessible entrance as practicable and shall have a clear
floor area of 30 inches by 48 inches. Such space shall adjoin, and may
overlap, an access path. Not more than 6 inches of the required clear
floor space may be accommodated for footrests under another seat
provided there is a minimum of 9 inches from the floor to the lowest
part of the seat overhanging the space. Securement areas may have
fold-down seats to accommodate other passengers when a wheelchair or
mobility aid is not occupying the area, provided the seats, when
folded up, do not obstruct the clear floor space required. (See Fig.
2)

      (3) Mobility aids accommodated.  The securement system shall
secure common wheelchairs and mobility aids and shall either be
automatic or easily attached by a person familiar with the system and
mobility aid and having average dexterity.

      (4) Orientation.  In vehicles in excess of 22 feet in length, at
least one securement device or system required by paragraph (a) of
this section shall secure the wheelchair or mobility aid facing toward
the front of the vehicle.  In vehicles 22 feet in length or less, the
required securement device may secure the wheelchair or mobility aid
either facing toward the front of the vehicle or rearward.  Additional
securement devices or systems shall secure the wheelchair or mobility
aid facing forward or rearward.  Where the wheelchair or mobility aid
is secured facing the rear of the vehicle, a padded barrier shall be
provided  The padded barrier shall extend from a height of 38 inches
from the vehicle floor to a height of 56 inches from the vehicle floor
with a width of 18 inches, laterally centered immediately in back of
the seated individual.  Such barriers need not be solid provided
equivalent protection is afforded.

      (5) Movement.  When the wheelchair or mobility aid is secured in
accordance with manufacturer's instructions, the securement system
shall limit the movement of an occupied wheelchair or mobility aid to
no more than 2 inches in any direction under normal vehicle operating
conditions. 

      (6) Stowage.  When not being used for securement, or when the
securement area can be used by standees, the securement system shall
not interfere with passenger movement, shall not present any hazardous
condition, shall be reasonably protected from vandalism, and shall be
readily accessed when needed for use.

      (7) Seat belt and shoulder harness. For each wheelchair or
mobility aid securement device provided, a passenger seat belt and
shoulder harness, complying with all applicable provisions of 49 CFR
part 571, shall also be provided for use by wheelchair or mobility aid
users. Such seat belts and shoulder harnesses shall not be used in
lieu of a device which secures the wheelchair or mobility aid itself.

Section 1192.25 Doors, steps and thresholds. 
      (a) Slip resistance.  All aisles, steps, floor areas where people
walk and floors in securement locations shall have slip-resistant
surfaces.  

      (b) Contrast. All step edges, thresholds, and the boarding edge
of ramps or lift platforms shall have a band of color(s) running the
full width of the step or edge which contrasts from the step tread and
riser, or lift or ramp surface, either light-on-dark or dark-on-light.

      (c) Door height. For vehicles in excess of 22 feet in length, the
overhead clearance between the top of the door opening and the raised
lift platform, or highest point of a ramp, shall be a minimum of 68
inches. For vehicles of 22 feet in length or less, the overhead
clearance between the top of the door opening and the raised lift
platform, or highest point of a ramp, shall be a minimum of 56 inches.
 
Section 1192.27 Priority seating signs. 
      (a) Each vehicle shall contain sign(s) which indicate that seats
in the front of the vehicle are priority seats for persons with
disabilities, and that other passengers should make such seats
available to those who wish to use them. At least one set of forward-
facing seats shall be so designated.

      (b) Each securement location shall have a sign designating it as
such.

      (c) Characters on signs required by paragraphs (a) and (b) of
this section shall have a width-to-height ratio between 3:5 and 1:1
and a stroke width-to-height ratio between 1:5 and 1:10, with a
minimum character height (using an upper case "X") of 5/8 inch, with
"wide" spacing (generally, the space between letters shall be 1/16 the
height of upper case letters), and shall contrast with the background
either light-on-dark or dark-on-light.

Section 1192.29 Interior circulation, handrails and stanchions. 
      (a) Interior handrails and stanchions shall permit sufficient
turning and maneuvering space for wheelchairs and other mobility aids
to reach a securement location from the lift or ramp.

      (b) Handrails and stanchions shall be provided in the entrance to
the vehicle in a configuration which allows persons with disabilities
to grasp such assists from outside the vehicle while starting to
board, and to continue using such assists throughout the boarding and
fare collection process. Handrails shall have a cross-sectional
diameter between 1-1/4 inches and 1-1/2 inches or shall provide an
equivalent grasping surface, and have eased edges with corner radii of
not less than 1/8 inch. Handrails shall be placed to provide a minimum
1-1/2 inches knuckle clearance from the nearest adjacent surface.
Where on-board fare collection devices are used on vehicles in excess
of 22 feet in length, a horizontal passenger assist shall be located
across the front of the vehicle and shall prevent passengers from
sustaining injuries on the fare collection device or windshield in the
event of a sudden deceleration. Without restricting the vestibule
space, the assist shall provide support for a boarding passenger from
the front door through the boarding procedure. Passengers shall be
able to lean against the assist for security while paying fares.

      (c) For vehicles in excess of 22 feet in length, overhead
handrail(s) shall be provided which shall be continuous except for a
gap at the rear doorway. 

      (d) Handrails and stanchions shall be sufficient to permit safe
boarding, on-board circulation, seating and standing assistance, and
alighting by persons with disabilities.

      (e) For vehicles in excess of 22 feet in length with front-door
lifts or ramps, vertical stanchions immediately behind the driver
shall either terminate at the lower edge of the aisle-facing seats, if
applicable, or be "dog-legged" so that the floor attachment does not
impede or interfere with wheelchair footrests. If the driver seat
platform must be passed by a wheelchair or mobility aid user entering
the vehicle, the platform, to the maximum extent practicable, shall
not extend into the aisle or vestibule beyond the wheel housing.

      (f) For vehicles in excess of 22 feet in length, the minimum
interior height along the path from the lift to the securement
location shall be 68 inches. For vehicles of 22 feet in length or
less, the minimum interior height from lift to securement location
shall be 56 inches.

Section 1192.31 Lighting. 
      (a) Any stepwell or doorway immediately adjacent to the driver
shall have, when the door is open, at least 2 foot-candles of
illumination measured on the step tread or lift platform.  
      (b) Other stepwells and doorways, including doorways in which
lifts or ramps are installed, shall have, at all times, at least 2
foot-candles of illumination measured on the step tread, or lift or
ramp, when deployed at the vehicle floor level.  

      (c) The vehicle doorways, including doorways in which lifts or
ramps are installed, shall have outside light(s) which, when the door
is open, provide at least 1 foot-candle of illumination on the street
surface for a distance of 3 feet perpendicular to all points on the
bottom step tread outer edge. Such light(s) shall be located below
window level and shielded to protect the eyes of entering and exiting
passengers.  

Section 1192.33 Fare box. 
      Where provided, the farebox shall be located as far forward as
practicable and shall not obstruct traffic in the vestibule,
especially wheelchairs or mobility aids. 

Section 1192.35 Public information system. 
      (a) Vehicles in excess of 22 feet in length, used in multiple-
stop, fixed-route service, shall be equipped with a public address
system permitting the driver, or recorded or digitized human speech
messages, to announce stops and provide other passenger information
within the vehicle.

      (b) [Reserved]

Section 1192.37 Stop request. 
      (a) Where passengers may board or alight at multiple stops at
their option, vehicles in excess of 22 feet in length shall provide
controls adjacent to the securement location for requesting stops and
which alerts the driver that a mobility aid user wishes to disembark.
Such a system shall provide auditory and visual indications that the
request has been made.

      (b) Controls required by paragraph (a) of this section shall be
mounted no higher than 48 inches and no lower than 15 inches above the
floor, shall be operable with one hand and shall not require tight
grasping, pinching, or twisting of the wrist. The force required to
activate controls shall be no greater than 5 lbf (22.2 N).

Section 1192.39 Destination and route signs. 
      (a) Where destination or route information is displayed on the
exterior of a vehicle, each vehicle shall have illuminated signs on
the front and boarding side of the vehicle. 

      (b) Characters on signs required by paragraph (a) of this section
shall have a width-to-height ratio between 3:5 and 1:1 and a stroke
width-to-height ratio between 1:5 and 1:10, with a minimum character
height (using an upper case "X") of 1 inch for signs on the boarding
side and a minimum character height of 2 inches for front "headsigns",
with "wide" spacing (generally, the space between letters shall be
1/16 the height of upper case letters), and shall contrast with the
background, either dark-on-light or light-on-dark.

Subpart C -- Rapid Rail Vehicles and Systems  
Section 1192.51 General. 
      (a) New, used and remanufactured rapid rail vehicles, to be
considered accessible by regulations issued by the Department of
Transportation in 49 CFR part 37, shall comply with this subpart.

      (b) If portions of the vehicle are modified in a way that affects
or could affect accessibility, each such portion shall comply, to the
extent practicable, with the applicable provisions of this subpart.
This provision does not require that inaccessible vehicles be
retrofitted with lifts, ramps or other boarding devices.

      (c) Existing vehicles which are retrofitted to comply with the
"one-car-per-train rule" of 49 CFR 37.93 shall comply with Sections 1192.55,
1192.57(b), 1192.59 and shall have, in new and key stations, at least
one door complying with Section 1192.53(a)(1), (b) and (d). Removal of seats
is not required. Vehicles previously designed and manufactured in
accordance with the accessibility requirements of 49 CFR part 609 or
Department of Transportation regulations implementing section 504 of
the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 that were in effect before October 7,
1991 and which can be entered and used from stations in which they are
to be operated, may be used to satisfy the requirements of 49 CFR
37.93.

Section 1192.53 Doorways. 
      (a) Clear width. - (1) Passenger doorways on vehicle sides shall
have clear openings at least 32 inches wide when open. 


      (2) If doorways connecting adjoining cars in a multi-car train
are provided, and if such doorway is connected by an aisle with a
minimum clear width of 30 inches to one or more spaces where
wheelchair or mobility aid users can be accommodated, then such
doorway shall have a minimum clear opening of 30 inches to permit
wheelchair and mobility aid users to be evacuated to an adjoining
vehicle in an emergency. 

      (b) Signage.  The International Symbol of Accessibility shall be
displayed on the exterior of accessible vehicles operating on an
accessible rapid rail system unless all vehicles are accessible and
are not marked by the access symbol.  (See Fig. 6)

      (c) Signals.  Auditory and visual warning signals shall be
provided to alert passengers of closing doors.  

      (d) Coordination with boarding platform. - (1) Requirements. 
Where new vehicles will operate in new stations, the design of
vehicles shall be coordinated with the boarding platform design such
that the horizontal gap between each vehicle door at rest and the
platform shall be no greater than 3 inches and the height of the
vehicle floor shall be within plus or minus 5/8 inch of the platform
height under all normal passenger load conditions. Vertical alignment
may be accomplished by vehicle air suspension or other suitable means
of meeting the requirement. 

      (2) Exception.  New vehicles operating in existing stations may
have a floor height within plus or minus 1-1/2 inches of the platform
height.  At key stations, the horizontal gap between at least one door
of each such vehicle and the platform shall be no greater than 3
inches.

      (3) Exception. Retrofitted vehicles shall be coordinated with the
platform in new and key stations such that the horizontal gap shall be
no greater than 4 inches and the height of the vehicle floor, under
50% passenger load, shall be within plus or minus 2 inches of the
platform height.

Setion 1192.55 Priority seating signs. 
      (a) Each vehicle shall contain sign(s) which indicate that
certain seats are priority seats for persons with disabilities, and
that other passengers should make such seats available to those who
wish to use them.  

      (b) Characters on signs required by paragraph (a) of this section
shall have a width-to-height ratio between 3:5 and 1:1 and a stroke
width-to-height ratio between 1:5 and 1:10, with a minimum character
height (using an upper case "X") of 5/8 inch, with "wide" spacing
(generally, the space between letters shall be 1/16 the height of
upper case letters), and shall contrast with the background, either
light-on-dark or dark-on-light.

Section 1192.57 Interior circulation, handrails and stanchions. 
      (a) Handrails and stanchions shall be provided to assist safe
boarding, on-board circulation, seating and standing assistance, and
alighting by persons with disabilities.
 
      (b) Handrails, stanchions, and seats shall allow a route at least
32 inches wide so that at least two wheelchair or mobility aid users
can enter the vehicle and position the wheelchairs or mobility aids in
areas, each having a minimum clear space of 48 inches by 30 inches,
which do not unduly restrict movement of other passengers. Space to
accommodate wheelchairs and mobility aids may be provided within the
normal area used by standees and designation of specific spaces is not
required. Particular attention shall be given to ensuring maximum
maneuverability immediately inside doors. Ample vertical stanchions
from ceiling to seat-back rails shall be provided. Vertical stanchions
from ceiling to floor shall not interfere with wheelchair or mobility
aid user circulation and shall be kept to a minimum in the vicinity of
doors.

      (c) The diameter or width of the gripping surface of handrails
and stanchions shall be 1-1/4 inches to 1-1/2 inches or provide an
equivalent gripping surface and shall provide a minimum 1-1/2 inches
knuckle clearance from the nearest adjacent surface.

Section 1192.59 Floor surfaces. 
      Floor surfaces on aisles, places for standees, and areas where
wheelchair and mobility aid users are to be accommodated shall be
slip-resistant.  

Section 1192.61 Public information system. 
      (a)(1) Requirements.  Each vehicle shall be equipped with a
public address system permitting transportation system personnel, or
recorded or digitized human speech messages, to announce stations and
provide other passenger information. Alternative systems or devices
which provide equivalent access are also permitted. Each vehicle
operating in stations having more than one line or route shall have an
external public address system to permit transportation system
personnel, or recorded or digitized human speech messages, to announce
train, route, or line identification information.

      (2) Exception.  Where station announcement systems provide
information on arriving trains, an external train speaker is not
required.

      (b) [Reserved]

Section 1192.63 Between-car barriers.
      (a) Requirement.  Suitable devices or systems shall be provided
to prevent, deter or warn individuals from inadvertently stepping off
the platform between cars. Acceptable solutions include, but are not
limited to, pantograph gates, chains, motion detectors or similar
devices.

      (b) Exception.  Between-car barriers are not required where
platform screens are provided which close off the platform edge and
open only when trains are correctly aligned with the doors.

Subpart D -- Light Rail Vehicles and Systems

Section 1192.71 General. 
      (a) New, used and remanufactured light rail vehicles, to be
considered accessible by regulations issued by the Department of
Transportation in 49 CFR part 37, shall comply with this subpart.

      (b)(1) Vehicles intended to be operated solely in light rail
systems confined entirely to a dedicated right-of-way, and for which
all stations or stops are designed and constructed for revenue service
after the effective date of standards for design and construction
issued pursuant to subpart C of 49 CFR part 37, shall provide level
boarding and shall comply with Section 1192.73(d)(1) and 1192.85.

      (2) Vehicles designed for, and operated on, pedestrian malls,
city streets, or other areas where level boarding is not practicable
shall provide wayside or car-borne lifts, mini-high platforms, or
other means of access in compliance with Section 1192.83(b) or (c).

      (c) If portions of the vehicle are modified in a way that affects
or could affect accessibility, each such portion shall comply, to the
extent practicable, with the applicable provisions of this subpart.
This provision does not require that inaccessible vehicles be
retrofitted with lifts, ramps or other boarding devices.

      (d) Existing vehicles retrofitted to comply with the "one-car-
per-train rule" at 49 CFR 37.93 shall comply with Sections 1192.75,
1192.77(c), 1192.79(a) and 1192.83(a) and shall have, in new and key
stations, at least one door which complies with Section 1192.73(a)(1), (b)
and (d). Vehicles previously designed and manufactured in accordance
with the accessibility requirements of 49 CFR part 609 or Department
of Transportation regulations implementing section 504 of the
Rehabilitation Act of 1973 that were in effect before October 7, 1991
and which can be entered and used from stations in which they are to
be operated, may be used to satisfy the requirements of 49 CFR 37.93.

Section 1192.73 Doorways.
      (a) Clear width.  (1) All passenger doorways on vehicle sides
shall have minimum clear openings of 32 inches when open.

      (2) If doorways connecting adjoining cars in a multi-car train
are provided, and if such doorway is connected by an aisle with a
minimum clear width of 30 inches to one or more spaces where
wheelchair or mobility aid users can be accommodated, then such
doorway shall have a minimum clear opening of 30 inches to permit
wheelchair and mobility aid users to be evacuated to an adjoining
vehicle in an emergency.  

      (b) Signage.  The International Symbol of Accessibility shall be
displayed on the exterior of each vehicle operating on an accessible
light rail system unless all vehicles are accessible and are not
marked by the access symbol.  (See Fig. 6)

      (c) Signals.  Auditory and visual warning signals shall be
provided to alert passengers of closing doors.  

      (d) Coordination with boarding platform. - (1) Requirements.  The
design of level-entry vehicles shall be coordinated with the boarding
platform or mini-high platform design so that 
the horizontal gap between a vehicle at rest and the platform shall be
no greater than 3 inches and the height of the vehicle floor shall be
within plus or minus 5/8 inch of the platform height. Vertical
alignment may be accomplished by vehicle air suspension, automatic
ramps or lifts, or any combination.

      (2) Exception.  New vehicles operating in existing stations may
have a floor height within plus or minus 1-1/2 inches of the platform
height. At key stations, the horizontal gap between at least one door
of each such vehicle and the platform shall be no greater than 3
inches.

      (3) Exception. Retrofitted vehicles shall be coordinated with the
platform in new and key stations such that the horizontal gap shall be
no greater than 4 inches and the height of the vehicle floor, under
50% passenger load, shall be within plus or minus 2 inches of the
platform height.

      (4) Exception.  Where it is not operationally or structurally
practicable to meet the horizontal or vertical requirements of
paragraphs (d)(1), (2) or (3) of this section, platform or vehicle
devices complying with Section 1192.83(b) or platform or vehicle mounted
ramps or bridge plates complying with Section 1192.83(c) shall be provided.

Section 1192.75 Priority seating signs. 
      (a) Each vehicle shall contain sign(s) which indicate that
certain seats are priority seats for persons with disabilities, and
that other passengers should make such seats available to those who
wish to use them.  

      (b) Where designated wheelchair or mobility aid seating locations
are provided, signs shall indicate the location and advise other
passengers of the need to permit wheelchair and mobility aid users to
occupy them.

      (c) Characters on signs required by paragraphs (a) or (b) of this
section shall have a width-to-height ratio between 3:5 and 1:1 and a
stroke width-to-height ratio between 1:5 and 1:10, with a minimum
character height (using an upper case "X") of 5/8 inch, with "wide"
spacing (generally, the space between letters shall be 1/16 the height
of upper case letters), and shall contrast with the background, either
light-on-dark or dark-on-light.

Section 1192.77 Interior circulation, handrails and stanchions.  
      (a) Handrails and stanchions shall be sufficient to permit safe
boarding, on-board circulation, seating and standing assistance, and
alighting by persons with disabilities.

      (b) At entrances equipped with steps, handrails and stanchions
shall be provided in the entrance to the vehicle in a configuration
which allows passengers to grasp such assists from outside the vehicle
while starting to board, and to continue using such handrails or
stanchions throughout the boarding process. Handrails shall have a
cross-sectional diameter between 1-1/4 inches and 1-1/2 inches or
shall provide an equivalent grasping surface, and have eased edges
with corner radii of not less than 1/8 inch. Handrails shall be placed
to provide a minimum 1-1/2 inches knuckle clearance from the nearest
adjacent surface. Where on-board fare collection devices are used, a
horizontal passenger assist shall be located between boarding
passengers and the fare collection device and shall prevent passengers
from sustaining injuries on the fare collection device or windshield
in the event of a sudden deceleration. Without restricting the
vestibule space, the assist shall provide support for a boarding
passenger from the door through the boarding procedure. Passengers
shall be able to lean against the assist for security while paying
fares.

      (c) At all doors on level-entry vehicles, and at each entrance
accessible by lift, ramp, bridge plate or other suitable means,
handrails, stanchions, passenger seats, vehicle driver seat platforms,
and fare boxes, if applicable, shall be located so as to allow a route
at least 32 inches wide so that at least two wheelchair or mobility
aid users can enter the vehicle and position the wheelchairs or
mobility aids in areas, each having a minimum clear space of 48 inches
by 30 inches, which do not unduly restrict movement of other
passengers. Space to accommodate wheelchairs and mobility aids may be
provided within the normal area used by standees and designation of
specific spaces is not required. Particular attention shall be given
to ensuring maximum maneuverability immediately inside doors. Ample
vertical stanchions from ceiling to seat-back rails shall be provided.
Vertical stanchions from ceiling to floor shall not interfere with
wheelchair or mobility aid circulation and shall be kept to a minimum
in the vicinity of accessible doors. 

Section 1192.79 Floors, steps and thresholds.  

      (a) Floor surfaces on aisles, step treads, places for standees,
and areas where wheelchair and mobility aid users are to be
accommodated shall be slip-resistant.   

      (b) All thresholds and step edges shall have a band of color(s)
running the full width of the step or threshold which contrasts from
the step tread and riser or adjacent floor, either light-on-dark or
dark-on-light.

Section 1192.81 Lighting.  
      (a) Any stepwell or doorway with a lift, ramp or bridge plate
immediately adjacent to the driver shall have, when the door is open,
at least 2 footcandles of illumination measured on the step tread or
lift platform.

      (b) Other stepwells, and doorways with lifts, ramps or bridge
plates, shall have, at all times, at least 2 footcandles of
illumination measured on the step tread or lift or ramp, when deployed
at the vehicle floor level.  

      (c) The doorways of vehicles not operating at lighted station
platforms shall have outside lights which provide at least 1
footcandle of illumination on the station platform or street surface
for a distance of 3 feet perpendicular to all points on the bottom
step tread. Such lights shall be located below window level and
shielded to protect the eyes of entering and exiting passengers.  

Section 1192.83 Mobility aid accessibility. 
      (a)(1) General.  All new light rail vehicles, other than level
entry vehicles, covered by this subpart shall provide a level-change
mechanism or boarding device (e.g., lift, ramp or bridge plate)
complying with either paragraph (b) or (c) of this section and
sufficient clearances to permit at least two wheelchair or mobility
aid users to reach areas, each with a minimum clear floor space of 48
inches by 30 inches, which do not unduly restrict passenger flow.
Space to accommodate wheelchairs and mobility aids may be provided
within the normal area used by standees and designation of specific
spaces is not required.

      (2) Exception.  If lifts, ramps or bridge plates meeting the
requirements of this section are provided on station platforms or
other stops, or mini-high platforms complying with Section 1192.73(d) are
provided, at stations or stops required to be accessible by 49 CFR
part 37, the vehicle is not required to be equipped with a car-borne
device. Where each new vehicle is compatible with a single platform-
mounted access system or device, additional systems or devices are not
required for each vehicle provided that the single device could be
used to provide access to each new vehicle if passengers using
wheelchairs or mobility aids could not be accommodated on a single
vehicle.

      (b) Vehicle lift. - (1) Design load. The design load of the lift
shall be at least 600 pounds. Working parts, such as cables, pulleys,
and shafts, which can be expected to wear, and upon which the lift
depends for support of the load, shall have a safety factor of at
least six, based on the ultimate strength of the material. Nonworking
parts, such as platform, frame, and attachment hardware which would
not be expected to wear, shall have a safety factor of at least three,
based on the ultimate strength of the material.

      (2) Controls. - (i) Requirements.  The controls shall be
interlocked with the vehicle brakes, propulsion system, or door, or
shall provide other appropriate mechanisms or systems, to ensure that
the vehicle cannot be moved when the lift is not stowed and so the
lift cannot be deployed unless the interlocks or systems are engaged.
The lift shall deploy to all levels (i.e., ground, curb, and
intermediate positions) normally encountered in the operating
environment. Where provided, each control for deploying, lowering,
raising, and stowing the lift and lowering the roll-off barrier shall
be of a momentary contact type requiring continuous manual pressure by
the operator and shall not allow improper lift sequencing when the
lift platform is occupied. The controls shall allow reversal of the
lift operation sequence, such as raising or lowering a platform that
is part way down, without allowing an occupied platform to fold or
retract into the stowed position. 

      (ii) Exception.  Where physical or safety constraints prevent the
deployment at some stops of a lift having its long dimension
perpendicular to the vehicle axis, the transportation entity may
specify a lift which is designed to deploy with its long dimension
parallel to the vehicle axis and which pivots into or out of the
vehicle while occupied (i.e., "rotary lift"). The requirements of
paragraph (b)(2)(i) of this section prohibiting the lift from being
stowed while occupied shall not apply to a lift design of this type if
the stowed position is within the passenger compartment and the lift
is intended to be stowed while occupied.

      (iii) Exception.  The brake or propulsion system interlocks
requirement does not apply to a station platform mounted lift provided
that a mechanical, electrical or other system operates to ensure that
vehicles do not move when the lift is in use.  

      (3) Emergency operation.  The lift shall incorporate an emergency
method of deploying, lowering to ground level with a lift occupant,
and raising and stowing the empty lift if the power to the lift fails.
No emergency method, manual or otherwise, shall be capable of being
operated in a manner that could be hazardous to the lift occupant or
to the operator when operated according to manufacturer's
instructions, and shall not permit the platform to be stowed or folded
when occupied, unless the lift is a rotary lift intended to be stowed
while occupied. 

      (4) Power or equipment failure. Lift platforms stowed in a
vertical position, and deployed platforms when occupied, shall have
provisions to prevent their deploying, falling, or folding any faster
than 12 inches/second or their dropping of an occupant in the event of
a single failure of any load carrying component. 

      (5) Platform barriers.  The lift platform shall be equipped with
barriers to prevent any of the wheels of a wheelchair or mobility aid
from rolling off the lift during its operation. A movable barrier or
inherent design feature shall prevent a wheelchair or mobility aid
from rolling off the edge closest to the vehicle until the lift is in
its fully raised position. Each side of the lift platform which
extends beyond the vehicle in its raised position shall have a barrier
a minimum 1-1/2 inches high. Such barriers shall not interfere with
maneuvering into or out of the aisle. The loading-edge barrier (outer
barrier) which functions as a loading ramp when the lift is at ground
level, shall be sufficient when raised or closed, or a supplementary
system shall be provided, to prevent a power wheelchair or mobility
aid from riding over or defeating it. The outer barrier of the lift
shall automatically rise or close, or a supplementary system shall
automatically engage, and remain raised, closed, or engaged at all
times that the lift is more than 3 inches above the station platform
or roadway and the lift is occupied. Alternatively, a barrier or
system may be raised, lowered, opened, closed, engaged or disengaged
by the lift operator provided an interlock or inherent design feature
prevents the lift from rising unless the barrier is raised or closed
or the supplementary system is engaged.

      (6) Platform surface.  The lift platform surface shall be free of
any protrusions over 1/4 inch high and shall be slip resistant. The
lift platform shall have a minimum clear width of 28-1/2 inches at the
platform, a minimum clear width of 30 inches measured from 2 inches
above the lift platform surface to 30 inches above the surface, and a
minimum clear length of 48 inches measured from 2 inches above the
surface of the platform to 30 inches above the surface. (See Fig. 1)

      (7) Platform gaps. Any openings between the lift platform surface
and the raised barriers shall not exceed 5/8 inch wide. When the lift
is at vehicle floor height with the inner barrier (if applicable) down
or retracted, gaps between the forward lift platform edge and vehicle
floor shall not exceed 1/2 inch horizontally and 5/8 inch vertically.
Platforms on semi-automatic lifts may have a hand hold not exceeding
1-1/2 inches by 4-1/2 inches located between the edge barriers.

      (8) Platform entrance ramp. The entrance ramp, or loading-edge
barrier used as a ramp, shall not exceed a slope of 1:8 measured on
level ground, for a maximum rise of 3 inches, and the transition from
the station platform or roadway to ramp may be vertical without edge
treatment up to 1/4 inch.  Thresholds between 1/4 inch and 1/2 inch
high shall be beveled with a slope no greater than 1:2.

      (9) Platform deflection.  The lift platform (not including the
entrance ramp) shall not deflect more than 3 degrees (exclusive of
vehicle roll) in any direction between its unloaded position and its
position when loaded with 600 pounds applied through a 26 inch by 26
inch test pallet at the centroid of the lift platform.

      (10) Platform movement.  No part of the platform shall move at a
rate exceeding 6 inches/second during lowering and lifting an
occupant, and shall not exceed 12 inches/second during deploying or
stowing. This requirement does not apply to the deployment or stowage
cycles of lifts that are manually deployed or stowed. The maximum
platform horizontal and vertical acceleration when occupied shall be
0.3g.

      (11) Boarding direction.  The lift shall permit both inboard and
outboard facing of wheelchairs and mobility aids.

      (12) Use by standees.  Lifts shall accommodate persons using
walkers, crutches, canes or braces or who otherwise have difficulty
using steps. The lift may be marked to indicate a preferred standing
position.

      (13) Handrails. Platforms on lifts shall be equipped with
handrails, on two sides, which move in tandem with the lift which
shall be graspable and provide support to standees throughout the
entire lift operation. Handrails shall have a usable component at
least 8 inches long with the lowest portion a minimum 30 inches above
the platform and the highest portion a maximum 38 inches above the
platform. The handrails shall be capable of withstanding a force of
100 pounds concentrated at any point on the handrail without permanent
deformation of the rail or its supporting structure. Handrails shall
have a cross-sectional diameter between 1-1/4 inches and 1-1/2 inches
or shall provide an equivalent grasping surface, and have eased edges
with corner radii of not less than 1/8 inch. Handrails shall be placed
to provide a minimum 1-1/2 inches knuckle clearance from the nearest
adjacent surface. Handrails shall not interfere with wheelchair or
mobility aid maneuverability when entering or leaving the vehicle. 

      (c) Vehicle ramp or bridge plate. - (1) Design load.  Ramps or
bridge plates 30 inches or longer shall support a load of 600 pounds,
placed at the centroid of the ramp or bridge plate distributed over an
area of 26 inches by 26 inches, with a safety factor of at least 3
based on the ultimate strength of the material. Ramps or bridge plates
shorter than 30 inches shall support a load of 300 pounds.

      (2) Ramp surface.  The ramp or bridge plate surface shall be
continuous and slip resistant, shall not have protrusions from the
surface greater than 1/4 inch, shall have a clear width of 30 inches,
and shall accommodate both four-wheel and three-wheel mobility aids.

      (3) Ramp threshold.  The transition from roadway or station
platform and the transition from vehicle floor to the ramp or bridge
plate may be vertical without edge treatment up to 1/4 inch.  Changes
in level between 1/4 inch and 1/2 inch shall be beveled with a slope
no greater than 1:2.

      (4) Ramp barriers. Each side of the ramp or bridge plate shall
have barriers at least 2 inches high to prevent mobility aid wheels
from slipping off.

      (5) Slope. Ramps or bridge plates shall have the least slope
practicable. If the height of the vehicle floor, under 50% passenger
load, from which the ramp is deployed is 3 inches or less above the
station platform a maximum slope of 1:4 is permitted; if the height of
the vehicle floor, under 50% passenger load, from which the ramp is
deployed is 6 inches or less, but more than 3 inches, above the
station platform a maximum slope of 1:6 is permitted; if the height of
the vehicle floor, under 50% passenger load, from which the ramp is
deployed is 9 inches or less, but more than 6 inches, above the
station platform a maximum slope of 1:8 is permitted; if the height of
the vehicle floor, under 50% passenger load, from which the ramp is
deployed is greater than 9 inches above the station platform a slope
of 1:12 shall be achieved. Folding or telescoping ramps are permitted
provided they meet all structural requirements of this section.
      
      (6) Attachment. - (i) Requirement.  When in use for boarding or
alighting, the ramp or bridge plate shall be attached to the vehicle,
or otherwise prevented from moving such that it is not subject to
displacement when loading or unloading a heavy power mobility aid and
that any gaps between vehicle and ramp or bridge plate, and station
platform and ramp or bridge plate, shall not exceed 5/8 inch.

      (ii) Exception.  Ramps or bridge plates which are attached to,
and deployed from, station platforms are permitted in lieu of vehicle
devices provided they meet the displacement requirements of paragraph
(c)(6)(i) of this section.

      (7) Stowage.  A compartment, securement system, or other
appropriate method shall be provided to ensure that stowed ramps or
bridge plates, including portable ramps or bridge plates stowed in the
passenger area, do not impinge on a passenger's wheelchair or mobility
aid or pose any hazard to passengers in the event of a sudden stop.

      (8) Handrails. If provided, handrails shall allow persons with
disabilities to grasp them from outside the vehicle while starting to
board, and to continue to use them throughout the boarding process,
and shall have the top between 30 inches and 38 inches above the ramp
surface. The handrails shall be capable of withstanding a force of 100
pounds concentrated at any point on the handrail without permanent
deformation of the rail or its supporting structure. The handrail
shall have a cross-sectional diameter between 1-1/4 inches and 1-1/2
inches or shall provide an equivalent grasping surface, and have eased
edges with corner radii of not less than 1/8 inch. Handrails shall not
interfere with wheelchair or mobility aid maneuverability when
entering or leaving the vehicle.  

Section 1192.85 Between-car barriers
      Where vehicles operate in a high-platform, level-boarding mode,
devices or systems shall be provided to prevent, deter or warn
individuals from inadvertently stepping off the platform between cars.
Appropriate devices include, but are not limited to, pantograph gates,
chains, motion detectors or other suitable devices.

Section 1192.87 Public information system. 
      (a) Each vehicle shall be equipped with an interior public
address system permitting transportation system personnel, or recorded
or digitized human speech messages, to announce stations and provide
other passenger information. Alternative systems or devices which
provide equivalent access are also permitted. 

      (b) [Reserved]

Subpart E -- Commuter Rail Cars and Systems

Section 1192.91 General.
      (a) New, used and remanufactured commuter rail cars, to be
considered accessible by regulations issued by the Department of
Transportation in 49 CFR part 37, shall comply with this subpart. 

      (b) If portions of the car are modified in such a way that it
affects or could affect accessibility, each such portion shall comply,
to the extent practicable, with the applicable provisions of this
subpart. This provision does not require that inaccessible cars be
retrofitted with lifts, ramps or other boarding devices.

      (c)(1) Commuter rail cars shall comply with Sections 1192.93(d) and
1192.109 for level boarding wherever structurally and operationally
practicable.

      (2)  Where level boarding is not structurally or operationally
practicable, commuter rail cars shall comply with Section 1192.95.

      (d) Existing vehicles retrofitted to comply with the "one-car-
per-train rule" at 49 CFR 37.93 shall comply with Sections 1192.93(e),
1192.95(a) and 1192.107 and shall have, in new and key stations, at
least one door on each side from which passengers board which complies
with Section 1192.93(d).  Vehicles previously designed and manufactured in
accordance with the program accessibility requirements of section 504
of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, or implementing regulations issued
by the Department of Transportation that were in effect before October
7, 1991 and which can be entered and used from stations in which they
are to be operated, may be used to satisfy the requirements of 49 CFR
37.93.

Section 1192.93 Doorways. 
      (a) Clear width.  (1) At least one door on each side of the car
from which passengers board opening onto station platforms and at
least one adjacent doorway into the passenger coach compartment, if
provided, shall have a minimum clear opening of 32 inches. 

      (2) If doorways connecting adjoining cars in a multi-car train
are provided, and if such doorway is connected by an aisle with a
minimum clear width of 30 inches to one or more spaces where
wheelchair or mobility aid users can be accommodated, then such
doorway shall have, to the maximum extent practicable in accordance
with the regulations issued under the Federal Railroad Safety Act of
1970 (49 CFR parts 229 and 231), a clear opening of 30 inches.

      (b) Passageways.  A route at least 32 inches wide shall be
provided from doors required to be accessible by paragraph (a)(1) of
this section to seating locations complying with Section 1192.95(d). In cars
where such doorways require passage through a vestibule, such
vestibule shall have a minimum width of 42 inches. (See Fig. 3) 

      (c) Signals.  If doors to the platform close automatically or
from a remote location, auditory and visual warning signals shall be
provided to alert passengers of closing doors. 

      (d) Coordination with boarding platform. - (1) Requirements. 
Cars operating in stations with high platforms, or mini-high
platforms, shall be coordinated with the boarding platform design such
that the horizontal gap between a car at rest and the platform shall
be no greater than 3 inches and the height of the car floor shall be
within plus or minus 5/8 inch of the platform height. Vertical
alignment may be accomplished by car air suspension, platform lifts or
other devices, or any combination.

      (2) Exception.  New vehicles operating in existing stations may
have a floor height within plus or minus 1-1/2 inches of the platform
height. At key stations, the horizontal gap between at least one
accessible door of each such vehicle and the platform shall be no
greater than 3 inches.

      (3) Exception.  Where platform set-backs do not allow the
horizontal gap or vertical alignment specified in paragraph (d)(1) or
(2) of this section, car, platform or portable lifts complying with
Section 1192.95(b), or car or platform ramps or bridge plates, complying with
Section 1192.95(c), shall be provided.

      (4) Exception. Retrofitted vehicles shall be coordinated with the
platform in new and key stations such that the horizontal gap shall be
no greater than 4 inches and the height of the vehicle floor, under
50% passenger load, shall be within plus or minus 2 inches of the
platform height.

      (e) Signage.  The International Symbol of Accessibility shall be
displayed on the exterior of all doors complying with this section
unless all cars are accessible and are not marked by the access
symbol.  (See Fig. 6)  Appropriate signage shall also indicate which
accessible doors are adjacent to an accessible restroom, if
applicable.  

Section 1192.95 Mobility aid accessibility. 
      (a)(1) General.  All new commuter rail cars, other than level
entry cars, covered by this subpart shall provide a level-change
mechanism or boarding device (e.g., lift, ramp or bridge plate)
complying with either paragraph (b) or (c) of this section; sufficient
clearances to permit a wheelchair or mobility aid user to reach a
seating location; and at least two wheelchair or mobility aid seating
locations complying with paragraph (d) of this section. 

      (2) Exception.  If portable or platform lifts, ramps or bridge
plates meeting the applicable requirements of this section are
provided on station platforms or other stops, or mini-high platforms
complying with Section 1192.93(d) are provided, at stations or stops required
to be accessible by 49 CFR part 37, the car is not required to be
equipped with a car-borne device. Where each new car is compatible
with a single platform-mounted access system or device, additional
systems or devices are not required for each car provided that the
single device could be used to provide access to each new car if
passengers using wheelchairs or mobility aids could not be
accommodated on a single car.

      (b) Car Lift. - (1) Design load. The design load of the lift
shall be at least 600 pounds. Working parts, such as cables, pulleys,
and shafts, which can be expected to wear, and upon which the lift
depends for support of the load, shall have a safety factor of at
least six, based on the ultimate strength of the material. Nonworking
parts, such as platform, frame, and attachment hardware which would
not be expected to wear, shall have a safety factor of at least three,
based on the ultimate strength of the material.

      (2) Controls. (i) Requirements. The controls shall be interlocked
with the car brakes, propulsion system, or door, or shall provide
other appropriate mechanisms or systems, to ensure that the car cannot
be moved when the lift is not stowed and so the lift cannot be
deployed unless the interlocks or systems are engaged. The lift shall
deploy to all platform levels normally encountered in the operating
environment. Where provided, each control for deploying, lowering,
raising, and stowing the lift and lowering the roll-off barrier shall
be of a momentary contact type requiring continuous manual pressure by
the operator and shall not allow improper lift sequencing when the
lift platform is occupied. The controls shall allow reversal of the
lift operation sequence, such as raising or lowering a platform that
is part way down, without allowing an occupied platform to fold or
retract into the stowed position. 

      (ii) Exception.  Where physical or safety constraints prevent the
deployment at some stops of a lift having its long dimension
perpendicular to the car axis, the transportation entity may specify a
lift which is designed to deploy with its long dimension parallel to
the car axis and which pivots into or out of the car while occupied
(i.e., "rotary lift"). The requirements of paragraph (b)(2)(i) of this
section prohibiting the lift from being stowed while occupied shall
not apply to a lift design of this type if the stowed position is
within the passenger compartment and the lift is intended to be stowed
while occupied.

      (iii) Exception. The brake or propulsion system interlock
requirement does not apply to a platform mounted or portable lift
provided that a mechanical, electrical or other system operates to
ensure that cars do not move when the lift is in use.

      (3) Emergency operation.  The lift shall incorporate an emergency
method of deploying, lowering to ground or platform level with a lift
occupant, and raising and stowing the empty lift if the power to the
lift fails. No emergency method, manual or otherwise, shall be capable
of being operated in a manner that could be hazardous to the lift
occupant or to the operator when operated according to manufacturer's
instructions, and shall not permit the platform to be stowed or folded
when occupied, unless the lift is a rotary lift intended to be stowed
while occupied. 

      (4) Power or equipment failure.  Platforms stowed in a vertical
position, and deployed platforms when occupied, shall have provisions
to prevent their deploying, falling, or folding any faster than 12
inches/second or their dropping of an occupant in the event of a
single failure of any load carrying component. 

      (5) Platform barriers. The lift platform shall be equipped with
barriers to prevent any of the wheels of a wheelchair or mobility aid
from rolling off the lift during its operation. A movable barrier or
inherent design feature shall prevent a wheelchair or mobility aid
from rolling off the edge closest to the car until the lift is in its
fully raised position. Each side of the lift platform which, in its
raised position, extends beyond the car shall have a barrier a minimum
1-1/2 inches high. Such barriers shall not interfere with maneuvering
into or out of the car. The loading-edge barrier (outer barrier) which
functions as a loading ramp when the lift is at ground or station
platform level, shall be sufficient when raised or closed, or a
supplementary system shall be provided, to prevent a power wheelchair
or mobility aid from riding over or defeating it. The outer barrier of
the lift shall automatically rise or close, or a supplementary system
shall automatically engage, and remain raised, closed, or engaged at
all times that the lift platform is more than 3 inches above the
station platform and the lift is occupied. Alternatively, a barrier or
system may be raised, lowered, opened, closed, engaged or disengaged
by the lift operator provided an interlock or inherent design feature
prevents the lift from rising unless the barrier is raised or closed
or the supplementary system is engaged.

      (6) Platform surface.  The lift platform surface shall be free of
any protrusions over 1/4 inch high and shall be slip resistant. The
lift platform shall have a minimum clear width of 28-1/2 inches at the
platform, a minimum clear width of 30 inches measured from 2 inches
above the lift platform surface to 30 inches above the surface, and a
minimum clear length of 48 inches measured from 2 inches above the
surface of the platform to 30 inches above the surface. (See Fig. 1)

      (7) Platform gaps.  Any openings between the lift platform
surface and the raised barriers shall not exceed 5/8 inch wide. When
the lift is at car floor height with the inner barrier down (if
applicable) or retracted, gaps between the forward lift platform edge
and car floor shall not exceed 1/2 inch horizontally and 5/8 inch
vertically. Platforms on semi-automatic lifts may have a hand hold not
exceeding 1-1/2 inches by 4-1/2 inches located between the edge
barriers.

      (8) Platform entrance ramp.  The entrance ramp, or loading-edge
barrier used as a ramp, shall not exceed a slope of 1:8, when measured
on level ground, for a maximum rise of 3 inches, and the transition
from station platform to ramp may be vertical without edge treatment
up to 1/4 inch. Thresholds between 1/4 inch and 1/2 inch high shall be
beveled with a slope no greater than 1:2.

      (9) Platform deflection.  The lift platform (not including the
entrance ramp) shall not deflect more than 3 degrees (exclusive of
vehicle roll) in any direction between its unloaded position and its
position when loaded with 600 pounds applied through a 26 inch by 26
inch test pallet at the centroid of the lift platform.

      (10) Platform movement. No part of the platform shall move at a
rate exceeding 6 inches/second during lowering and lifting an
occupant, and shall not exceed 12 inches/second during deploying or
stowing. This requirement does not apply to the deployment or stowage
cycles of lifts that are manually deployed or stowed. The maximum
platform horizontal and vertical acceleration when occupied shall be
0.3g.

      (11) Boarding direction.  The lift shall permit both inboard and
outboard facing of wheelchairs and mobility aids.

      (12) Use by standees.  Lifts shall accommodate persons using
walkers, crutches, canes or braces or who otherwise have difficulty
using steps. The lift may be marked to indicate a preferred standing
position.

      (13) Handrails.  Platforms on lifts shall be equipped with
handrails, on two sides, which move in tandem with the lift which
shall be graspable and provide support to standees throughout the
entire lift operation. Handrails shall have a usable component at
least 8 inches long with the lowest portion a minimum 30 inches above
the platform and the highest portion a maximum 38 inches above the
platform. The handrails shall be capable of withstanding a force of
100 pounds concentrated at any point on the handrail without permanent
deformation of the rail or its supporting structure. The handrail
shall have a cross-sectional diameter between 1-1/4 inches and 1-1/2
inches or shall provide an equivalent grasping surface, and have eased
edges with corner radii of not less than 1/8 inch. Handrails shall be
placed to provide a minimum 1-1/2 inches knuckle clearance from the
nearest adjacent surface. Handrails shall not interfere with
wheelchair or mobility aid maneuverability when entering or leaving
the car. 

      (c) Car ramp or bridge plate. - (1) Design load.  Ramps or bridge
plates 30 inches or longer shall support a load of 600 pounds, placed
at the centroid of the ramp or bridge plate distributed over an area
of 26 inches by 26 inches, with a safety factor of at least 3 based on
the ultimate strength of the material. Ramps or bridge plates shorter
than 30 inches shall support a load of 300 pounds.

      (2) Ramp surface.  The ramp or bridge plate surface shall be
continuous and slip resistant, shall not have protrusions from the
surface greater than 1/4 inch high, shall have a clear width of 30
inches and shall accommodate both four-wheel and three-wheel mobility
aids.

      (3) Ramp threshold.  The transition from station platform to the
ramp or bridge plate and the transition from car floor to the ramp or
bridge plate may be vertical without edge treatment up to 1/4 inch. 
Changes in level between 1/4 inch and 1/2 inch shall be beveled with a
slope no greater than 1:2.

      (4) Ramp barriers.  Each side of the ramp or bridge plate shall
have barriers at least 2 inches high to prevent mobility aid wheels
from slipping off.

      (5) Slope. Ramps or bridge plates shall have the least slope
practicable. If the height of the vehicle floor, under 50% passenger
load, from which the ramp is deployed is 3 inches or less above the
station platform a maximum slope of 1:4 is permitted; if the height of
the vehicle floor, under 50% passenger load, from which the ramp is
deployed is 6 inches or less, but more than 3 inches, above the
station platform a maximum slope of 1:6 is permitted; if the height of
the vehicle floor, under 50% passenger load, from which the ramp is
deployed is 9 inches or less, but more than 6 inches, above the
station platform a maximum slope of 1:8 is permitted; if the height of
the vehicle floor, under 50% passenger load, from which the ramp is
deployed is greater than 9 inches above the station platform a slope
of 1:12 shall be achieved. Folding or telescoping ramps are permitted
provided they meet all structural requirements of this section.

      (6) Attachment. - (i) Requirement.  When in use for boarding or
alighting, the ramp or bridge plate shall be attached to the vehicle,
or otherwise prevented from moving such that it is not subject to
displacement when loading or unloading a heavy power mobility aid and
that any gaps between vehicle and ramp or bridge plate, and station
platform and ramp or bridge plate, shall not exceed 5/8 inch.

      (ii) Exception.  Ramps or bridge plates which are attached to,
and deployed from, station platforms are permitted in lieu of car
devices provided they meet the displacement requirements of paragraph
(c)(6)(i) of this section.

      (7) Stowage.  A compartment, securement system, or other
appropriate method shall be provided to ensure that stowed ramps or
bridge plates, including portable ramps or bridge plates stowed in the
passenger area, do not impinge on a passenger's wheelchair or mobility
aid or pose any hazard to passengers in the event of a sudden stop.

      (8) Handrails.  If provided, handrails shall allow persons with
disabilities to grasp them from outside the car while starting to
board, and to continue to use them throughout the boarding process,
and shall have the top between 30 inches and 38 inches above the ramp
surface. The handrails shall be capable of withstanding a force of 100
pounds concentrated at any point on the handrail without permanent
deformation of the rail or its supporting structure. The handrail
shall have a cross-sectional diameter between 1-1/4 inches and 1-1/2
inches or shall provide an equivalent grasping surface, and have eased
edges with corner radii of not less than 1/8 inch. Handrails shall not
interfere with wheelchair or mobility aid maneuverability when
entering or leaving the car.

      (d) Mobility aid seating location.  Spaces for persons who wish
to remain in their wheelchairs or mobility aids shall have a minimum
clear floor space 48 inches by 30 inches. Such spaces shall adjoin,
and may overlap, an accessible path. Not more than 6 inches of the
required clear floor space may be accommodated for footrests under
another seat provided there is a minimum of 9 inches from the floor to
the lowest part of the seat overhanging the space. Seating spaces may
have fold-down or removable seats to accommodate other passengers when
a wheelchair or mobility aid user is not occupying the area, provided
the seats, when folded up, do not obstruct the clear floor space
required. (See Fig. 2)

Section 1192.97 Interior circulation, handrails and stanchions. 
      (a) Where provided, handrails or stanchions within the passenger
compartment shall be placed to permit sufficient turning and
maneuvering space for wheelchairs and other mobility aids to reach a
seating location, complying with Section 1192.95(d), from an accessible
entrance. The diameter or width of the gripping surface of interior
handrails and stanchions shall be 1-1/4 inches to 1-1/2 inches or
shall provide an equivalent gripping surface. Handrails shall be
placed to provide a minimum 1-1/2 inches knuckle clearance from the
nearest adjacent surface.

      (b) Where provided, handrails or stanchions shall be sufficient
to permit safe boarding, on-board circulation, seating and standing
assistance, and alighting by persons with disabilities.

      (c) At entrances equipped with steps, handrails or stanchions
shall be provided in the entrance to the car in a configuration which
allows passengers to grasp such assists from outside the car while
starting to board, and to continue using such assists throughout the
boarding process, to the extent permitted by 49 CFR part 231.

Section 1192.99 Floors, steps and thresholds.  
      (a) Floor surfaces on aisles, step treads, places for standees,
and areas where wheelchair and mobility aid users are to be
accommodated shall be slip-resistant.   

      (b) All thresholds and step edges shall have a band of color(s)
running the full width of the step or threshold which contrasts from
the step tread and riser or adjacent floor, either light-on-dark or
dark-on-light.

Section 1192.101 Lighting.  
      (a) Any stepwell or doorway with a lift, ramp or bridge plate
shall have, when the door is open, at least 2 footcandles of
illumination measured on the step tread, ramp, bridge plate, or lift
platform.
 
      (b) The doorways of cars not operating at lighted station
platforms shall have outside lights which, when the door is open,
provide at least 1 footcandle of illumination on the station platform
surface for a distance of 3 feet perpendicular to all points on the
bottom step tread edge. Such lights shall be shielded to protect the
eyes of entering and exiting passengers.  

Section 1192.103 Public information system. 
      (a) Each car shall be equipped with an interior public address
system permitting transportation system personnel, or recorded or
digitized human speech messages, to announce stations and provide
other passenger information.  Alternative systems or devices which
provide equivalent access are also permitted. 

      (b) [Reserved]

Section 1192.105 Priority seating signs. 
      (a) Each car shall contain sign(s) which indicate that certain
seats are priority seats for persons with disabilities and that other
passengers should make such seats available to those who wish to use
them.  

      (b) Characters on signs required by paragraph (a) shall have a
width-to-height ratio between 3:5 and 1:1 and a stroke width-to-height
ratio between 1:5 and 1:10, with a minimum character height (using an
upper case "X") of 5/8 inch, with "wide" spacing (generally, the space
between letters shall be 1/16 the height of upper case letters), and
shall contrast with the background either light-on-dark or dark-on-
light.

Section 1192.107 Restrooms. 
      (a) If a restroom is provided for the general public, it shall be
designed so as to allow a person using a wheelchair or mobility aid to
enter and use such restroom as specified in  paragraphs (a)(1) through
(5) of this section.

      (1) The minimum clear floor area shall be 35 inches by 60 inches.
Permanently installed fixtures may overlap this area a maximum of 6
inches, if the lowest portion of the fixture is a minimum of 9 inches
above the floor, and may overlap a maximum of 19 inches, if the lowest
portion of the fixture is a minimum of 29 inches above the floor,
provided such fixtures do not interfere with access to the water
closet. Fold-down or retractable seats or shelves may overlap the
clear floor space at a lower height provided they can be easily folded
up or moved out of the way.

      (2) The height of the water closet shall be 17 inches to 19
inches measured to the top of the toilet seat. Seats shall not be
sprung to return to a lifted position.

      (3) A grab bar at least 24 inches long shall be mounted behind
the water closet, and a horizontal grab bar at least 40 inches long
shall be mounted on at least one side wall, with one end not more than
12 inches from the back wall, at a height between 33 inches and 36
inches above the floor. 

      (4) Faucets and flush controls shall be operable with one hand
and shall not require tight grasping, pinching, or twisting of the
wrist. The force required to activate controls shall be no greater
than 5 lbf (22.2 N). Controls for flush valves shall be mounted no
more than 44 inches above the floor.

      (5) Doorways on the end of the enclosure, opposite the water
closet, shall have a minimum clear opening width of 32 inches.
Doorways on the side wall shall have a minimum clear opening width of
39 inches. Door latches and hardware shall be operable with one hand
and shall not require tight grasping, pinching, or twisting of the
wrist.

      (b) Restrooms required to be accessible shall be in close
proximity to at least one seating location for persons using mobility
aids and shall be connected to such a space by an unobstructed path
having a minimum width of 32 inches.

Section 1192.109 Between-car barriers.
      Where vehicles operate in a high-platform, level-boarding mode,
and where between-car bellows are not provided, devices or systems
shall be provided to prevent, deter or warn individuals from
inadvertently stepping off the platform between cars. Appropriate
devices include, but are not limited to, pantograph gates, chains,
motion detectors or other suitable devices.

Subpart F -- Intercity Rail Cars and Systems

Section 1192.111 General.
      (a) New, used and remanufactured intercity rail cars, to be
considered accessible by regulations issued by the Department of
Transportation in 49 CFR part 37, shall comply with this subpart to
the extent required for each type of car as specified below. 

      (1) Single-level rail passenger coaches and food service cars
(other than single-level dining cars) shall comply with Sections 1192.113
through 1192.123.  Compliance with Section 1192.125 shall be required only to
the extent necessary to meet the requirements of paragraph (d) of this
section.

      (2) Single-level dining and lounge cars shall have at least one
connecting doorway complying with Section 1192.113(a)(2), connected to a car
accessible to persons using wheelchairs or mobility aids, and at least
one space complying with Section 1192.125(d)(2) and (3), to provide table
service to a person who wishes to remain in his or her wheelchair, and
space to fold and store a wheelchair for a person who wishes to
transfer to an existing seat. 

      (3) Bi-level dining cars shall comply with Sections 1192.113(a)(2),
1192.115(b), 1192.117(a), and 1192.121.

      (4) Bi-level lounge cars shall have doors on the lower level, on
each side of the car from which passengers board, complying with
Section 1192.113, a restroom complying with Section 1192.123, and at least one space
complying with Section 1192.125(d)(2) and (3) to provide table service to a
person who wishes to remain in his or her wheelchair and space to fold
and store a wheelchair for a person who wishes to transfer to an
existing seat.

      (5) Restrooms complying with Section 1192.123 shall be provided in
single-level rail passenger coaches and food service cars adjacent to
the accessible seating locations required by paragraph (d) of this
section. Accessible restrooms are required in dining and lounge cars
only if restrooms are provided for other passengers.

      (6) Sleeper cars shall comply with Section 1192.113(b) through (d),
1192.115 through 1192.121, and 1192.125, and have at least one
compartment which can be entered and used by a person using a
wheelchair or mobility aid and complying with Section 1192.127.

      (b)(1) If physically and operationally practicable, intercity
rail cars shall comply with Section 1192.113(d) for level boarding.

      (2) Where level boarding is not structurally or operationally
practicable, intercity rail cars shall comply with Section 1192.125.

      (c) If portions of the car are modified in a way that affects or
could affect accessibility, each such portion shall comply, to the
extent practicable, with the applicable provisions of this subpart.
This provision does not require that inaccessible cars be retrofitted
with lifts, ramps or other boarding devices.

      (d) Passenger coaches or food service cars shall have the number
of spaces complying with Section 1192.125(d)(2) and the number of spaces
complying with Section 1192.125(d)(3), as required by 49 CFR 37.91.

      (e) Existing cars retrofitted to meet the seating requirements of
49 CFR 37.91 shall comply with Sections 1192.113(e), 1192.123, 1192.125(d)
and shall have at least one door on each side from which passengers
board complying with Section 1192.113(d). Existing cars designed and
manufactured to be accessible in accordance with Department of
Transportation regulations implementing section 504 of the
Rehabilitation Act of 1973 that were in effect before October 7, 1991,
shall comply with Section 1192.125(a).

Section 1192.113 Doorways. 
      (a) Clear width.  (1) At least one doorway, on each side of the
car from which passengers board, of each car required to be accessible
by Section 1192.111(a) and where the spaces required by Section 1192.111(d) are
located, and at least one adjacent doorway into coach passenger
compartments shall have a minimum clear opening width of 32 inches. 

      (2) Doorways at ends of cars connecting two adjacent cars, to the
maximum extent practicable in accordance with regulations issued under
the Federal Railroad Safety Act of 1970 (49 CFR parts 229 and 231),
shall have a clear opening width of 32 inches to permit wheelchair and
mobility aid users to enter into a single-level dining car, if
available.

      (b) Passageway.  Doorways required to be accessible by paragraph
(a) of this section shall permit access by persons using mobility aids
and shall have an unobstructed passageway at least 32 inches wide
leading to an accessible sleeping compartment complying with Section 1192.127
or seating locations complying with Section 1192.125(d). In cars where such
doorways require passage through a vestibule, such vestibule shall
have a minimum width of 42 inches. (See Fig. 4)

      (c) Signals.  If doors to the platform close automatically or
from a remote location, auditory and visual warning signals shall be
provided to alert passengers of closing doors. 

      (d) Coordination with boarding platforms. - (1) Requirements. 
Cars which provide level-boarding in stations with high platforms
shall be coordinated with the boarding platform or mini-high platform
design such that the horizontal gap between a car at rest and the
platform shall be no greater than 3 inches and the height of the car
floor shall be within plus or minus 5/8 inch of the platform height.
Vertical alignment may be accomplished by car air suspension, platform
lifts or other devices, or any combination.

      (2) Exception.  New cars operating in existing stations may have
a floor height within plus or minus 1-1/2 inches of the platform
height.

      (3) Exception.  Where platform set-backs do not allow the
horizontal gap or vertical alignment specified in paragraph (d)(1) or
(2), platform or portable lifts complying with Section 1192.125(b), or car or
platform bridge plates, complying with Section 1192.125(c), may be provided.

      (4) Exception. Retrofitted vehicles shall be coordinated with the
platform in existing stations such that the horizontal gap shall be no
greater than 4 inches and the height of the vehicle floor, under 50%
passenger load, shall be within plus or minus 2 inches of the platform
height.

      (e) Signage.  The International Symbol of Accessibility shall be
displayed on the exterior of all doors complying with this section
unless all cars and doors are accessible and are not marked by the
access symbol.  (See Fig. 6)  Appropriate signage shall also indicate
which accessible doors are adjacent to an accessible restroom, if
applicable.  

Section 1192.115 Interior circulation, handrails and stanchions. 
      (a) Where provided, handrails or stanchions within the passenger
compartment shall be placed to permit sufficient turning and
maneuvering space for wheelchairs and other mobility aids to reach a
seating location, complying with Section 1192.125(d), from an accessible
entrance. The diameter or width of the gripping surface of interior
handrails and stanchions shall be 1-1/4 inches to 1-1/2 inches or
shall provide an equivalent gripping surface. Handrails shall be
placed to provide a minimum 1-1/2 inches knuckle clearance from the
nearest adjacent surface.

      (b) Where provided, handrails and stanchions shall be sufficient
to permit safe boarding, on-board circulation, seating and standing
assistance, and alighting by persons with disabilities.

      (c) At entrances equipped with steps, handrails or stanchions
shall be provided in the entrance to the car in a configuration which
allows passengers to grasp such assists from outside the car while
starting to board, and to continue using such assists throughout the
boarding process, to the extent permitted by 49 CFR part 231.

Section 1192.117 Floors, steps and thresholds.  
      (a) Floor surfaces on aisles, step treads and areas where
wheelchair and mobility aid users are to be accommodated shall be
slip-resistant.   

      (b) All step edges and thresholds shall have a band of color(s)
running the full width of the step or threshold which contrasts from
the step tread and riser or adjacent floor, either light-on-dark or
dark-on-light.

Section 1192.119 Lighting.  
      (a) Any stepwell, or doorway with a lift, ramp or bridge plate,
shall have, when the door is open, at least 2 footcandles of
illumination measured on the step tread, ramp, bridge plate or lift
platform.
 
      (b) The doorways of cars not operating at lighted station
platforms shall have outside lights which, when the door is open,
provide at least 1 footcandle of illumination on the station platform
surface for a distance of 3 feet perpendicular to all points on the
bottom step tread edge. Such lights shall be shielded to protect the
eyes of entering and exiting passengers.

Section 1192.121 Public information system.
      (a) Each car shall be equipped with a public address system
permitting transportation system personnel, or recorded or digitized
human speech messages, to announce stations and provide other
passenger information.  Alternative systems or devices which provide
equivalent access are also permitted. 

      (b) [Reserved]

Section 1192.123 Restrooms. 
      (a) If a restroom is provided for the general public, and an
accessible restroom is required by Section 1192.111(a) and (e), it shall be
designed so as to allow a person using a wheelchair or mobility aid to
enter and use such restroom as specified in paragraphs (a)(1) through
(5) of this section.

      (1) The minimum clear floor area shall be 35 inches by 60 inches.
Permanently installed fixtures may overlap this area a maximum of 6
inches, if the lowest portion of the fixture is a minimum of 9 inches
above the floor, and may overlap a maximum of 19 inches, if the lowest
portion of the fixture is a minimum of 29 inches above the floor.
Fixtures shall not interfere with access to and use of the water
closet. Fold-down or retractable seats or shelves may overlap the
clear floor space at a lower height provided they can be easily folded
up or moved out of the way.

      (2) The height of the water closet shall be 17 inches to 19
inches measured to the top of the toilet seat. Seats shall not be
sprung to return to a lifted position.

      (3) A grab bar at least 24 inches long shall be mounted behind
the water closet, and a horizontal grab bar at least 40 inches long
shall be mounted on at least one side wall, with one end not more than
12 inches from the back wall, at a height between 33 inches and 36
inches above the floor. 

      (4) Faucets and flush controls shall be operable with one hand
and shall not require tight grasping, pinching, or twisting of the
wrist. The force required to activate controls shall be no greater
than 5 lbf (22.2 N). Controls for flush valves shall be mounted no
more than 44 inches above the floor.

      (5) Doorways on the end of the enclosure, opposite the water
closet, shall have a minimum clear opening width of 32 inches. 
Doorways on the side wall shall have a minimum clear opening width of
39 inches. Door latches and hardware shall be operable with one hand
and shall not require tight grasping, pinching, or twisting of the
wrist.

      (b) Restrooms required to be accessible shall be in close
proximity to at least one seating location for persons using mobility
aids complying with Section 1192.125(d) and shall be connected to such a
space by an unobstructed path having a minimum width of 32 inches.

Section 1192.125 Mobility aid accessibility. 
      (a)(1) General. All intercity rail cars, other than level entry
cars, required to be accessible by Section 1192.111(a) and (e) of this
subpart shall provide a level-change mechanism or boarding device
(e.g., lift, ramp or bridge plate) complying with either paragraph (b)
or (c) of this section and sufficient clearances to permit a
wheelchair or other mobility aid user to reach a seating location
complying with paragraph (d) of this section.

      (2) Exception.  If portable or platform lifts, ramps or bridge
plates meeting the applicable requirements of this section are
provided on station platforms or other stops, or mini-high platforms
complying with Section 1192.113(d) are provided, at stations or stops
required to be accessible by 49 CFR part 37, the car is not required
to be equipped with a car-borne device.

      (b) Car Lift. - (1) Design load.  The design load of the lift
shall be at least 600 pounds. Working parts, such as cables, pulleys,
and shafts, which can be expected to wear, and upon which the lift
depends for support of the load, shall have a safety factor of at
least six, based on the ultimate strength of the material. Nonworking
parts, such as platform, frame, and attachment hardware which would
not be expected to wear, shall have a safety factor of at least three,
based on the ultimate strength of the material.

      (2) Controls. - (i) Requirements.  The controls shall be
interlocked with the car brakes, propulsion system, or door, or shall
provide other appropriate mechanisms or systems, to ensure  that the
car cannot be moved when the lift is not stowed and so the lift cannot
be deployed unless the interlocks or systems are engaged. The lift
shall deploy to all platform levels normally encountered in the
operating environment. Where provided, each control for deploying,
lowering, raising, and stowing the lift and lowering the roll-off
barrier shall be of a momentary contact type requiring continuous
manual pressure by the operator and shall not allow improper lift
sequencing when the lift platform is occupied. The controls shall
allow reversal of the lift operation sequence, such as raising or
lowering a platform that is part way down, without allowing an
occupied platform to fold or retract into the stowed position. 

      (ii) Exception.  Where physical or safety constraints prevent the
deployment at some stops of a lift having its long dimension
perpendicular to the car axis, the transportation entity may specify a
lift which is designed to deploy with its long dimension parallel to
the car axis and which pivots into or out of the car while occupied
(i.e., "rotary lift"). The requirements of paragraph (b)(2)(i) of this
section prohibiting the lift from being stowed while occupied shall
not apply to a lift design of this type if the stowed position is
within the passenger compartment and the lift is intended to be stowed
while occupied.

      (iii) Exception. The brake or propulsion system interlocks
requirement does not apply to platform mounted or portable lifts
provided that a mechanical, electrical or other system operates to
ensure that cars do not move when the lift is in use.  

      (3) Emergency operation.  The lift shall incorporate an emergency
method of deploying, lowering to ground or station platform level with
a lift occupant, and raising and stowing the empty lift if the power
to the lift fails. No emergency method, manual or otherwise, shall be
capable of being operated in a manner that could be hazardous to the
lift occupant or to the operator when operated according to
manufacturer's instructions, and shall not permit the platform to be
stowed or folded when occupied, unless the lift is a rotary lift and
is intended to be stowed while occupied. 

      (4) Power or equipment failure.  Platforms stowed in a vertical
position, and deployed platforms when occupied, shall have provisions
to prevent their deploying, falling, or folding any faster than 12
inches/second or their dropping of an occupant in the event of a
single failure of any load carrying component. 

      (5) Platform barriers.  The lift platform shall be equipped with
barriers to prevent any of the wheels of a wheelchair or mobility aid
from rolling off the lift during its operation. A movable barrier or
inherent design feature shall prevent a wheelchair or mobility aid
from rolling off the edge closest to the car until the lift is in its
fully raised position. Each side of the lift platform which, in its
raised position, extends beyond the car shall have a barrier a minimum
1-1/2 inches high. Such barriers shall not interfere with maneuvering
into or out of the car. The loading-edge barrier (outer barrier) which
functions as a loading ramp when the lift is at ground or station
platform level, shall be sufficient when raised or closed, or a
supplementary system shall be provided, to prevent a power wheelchair
or mobility aid from riding over or defeating it. The outer barrier of
the lift shall automatically rise or close, or a supplementary system
shall automatically engage, and remain raised, closed, or engaged at
all times that the lift platform is more than 3 inches above the
station platform and the lift is occupied. Alternatively, a barrier or
system may be raised, lowered, opened, closed, engaged or disengaged
by the lift operator provided an interlock or inherent design feature
prevents the lift from rising unless the barrier is raised or closed
or the supplementary system is engaged. 

      (6) Platform surface.  The lift platform surface shall be free of
any protrusions over 1/4 inch high and shall be slip resistant. The
lift platform shall have a minimum clear width of 28-1/2 inches at the
platform, a minimum clear width of 30 inches measured from 2 inches
above the lift platform surface to 30 inches above the surface, and a
minimum clear length of 48 inches measured from 2 inches above the
surface of the platform to 30 inches above the surface. (See Fig. 1)

      (7) Platform gaps.  Any openings between the lift platform
surface and the raised barriers shall not exceed 5/8 inch wide. When
the lift is at car floor height with the inner barrier (if applicable)
down or retracted, gaps between the forward lift platform edge and car
floor shall not exceed 1/2 inch horizontally and 5/8 inch vertically.
Platforms on semi-automatic lifts may have a hand hold not exceeding
1-1/2 inches by 4-1/2 inches located between the edge barriers.

      (8) Platform entrance ramp.  The entrance ramp, or loading-edge
barrier used as a ramp, shall not exceed a slope of 1:8, when measured
on level ground, for a maximum rise of 3 inches, and the transition
from station platform to ramp may be vertical without edge treatment
up to 1/4 inch.  Thresholds between 1/4 inch and 1/2 inch high shall
be beveled with a slope no greater than 1:2.

      (9) Platform deflection.  The lift platform (not including the
entrance ramp) shall not deflect more than 3 degrees (exclusive of car
roll) in any direction between its unloaded position and its position
when loaded with 600 pounds applied through a 26 inch by 26 inch test
pallet at the centroid of the lift platform.

      (10) Platform movement.  No part of the platform shall move at a
rate exceeding 6 inches/second during lowering and lifting an
occupant, and shall not exceed 12 inches/second during deploying or
stowing. This requirement does not apply to the deployment or stowage
cycles of lifts that are manually deployed or stowed. The maximum
platform horizontal and vertical acceleration when occupied shall be
0.3g.

      (11) Boarding direction.  The lift shall permit both inboard and
outboard facing of wheelchairs and mobility aids.

      (12) Use by standees.  Lifts shall accommodate persons using
walkers, crutches, canes or braces or who otherwise have difficulty
using steps. The lift may be marked to indicate a preferred standing
position.

      (13) Handrails.  Platforms on lifts shall be equipped with
handrails, on two sides, which move in tandem with the lift, and which
shall be graspable and provide support to standees throughout the
entire lift operation. Handrails shall have a usable component at
least 8 inches long with the lowest portion a minimum 30 inches above
the platform and the highest portion a maximum 38 inches above the
platform. The handrails shall be capable of withstanding a force of
100 pounds concentrated at any point on the handrail without permanent
deformation of the rail or its supporting structure. The handrail
shall have a cross-sectional diameter between 1-1/4 inches and 1-1/2
inches or shall provide an equivalent grasping surface, and have eased
edges with corner radii of not less than 1/8 inch. Handrails shall be
placed to provide a minimum 1-1/2 inches knuckle clearance from the
nearest adjacent surface. Handrails shall not interfere with
wheelchair or mobility aid maneuverability when entering or leaving
the car. 

      (c) Car ramp or bridge plate. - (1) Design load.  Ramps or bridge
plates 30 inches or longer shall support a load of 600 pounds, placed
at the centroid of the ramp or bridge plate distributed over an area
of 26 inches by 26 inches, with a safety factor of at least 3 based on
the ultimate strength of the material. Ramps or bridge plates shorter
than 30 inches shall support a load of 300 pounds.

      (2) Ramp surface.  The ramp or bridge plate surface shall be
continuous and slip resistant, shall not have protrusions from the
surface greater than 1/4 inch high, shall have a clear width of 30
inches and shall accommodate both four-wheel and three-wheel mobility
aids.

      (3) Ramp threshold.  The transition from station platform to the
ramp or bridge plate and the transition from car floor to the ramp or
bridge plate may be vertical without edge treatment up to 1/4 inch. 
Changes in level between 1/4 inch and 1/2 inch shall be beveled with a
slope no greater than 1:2.

      (4) Ramp barriers.  Each side of the ramp or bridge plate shall
have barriers at least 2 inches high to prevent mobility aid wheels
from slipping off.

      (5) Slope.  Ramps or bridge plates shall have the least slope
practicable. If the height of the vehicle floor, under 50% passenger
load, from which the ramp is deployed is 3 inches or less above the
station platform a maximum slope of 1:4 is permitted; if the height of
the vehicle floor, under 50% passenger load, from which the ramp is
deployed is 6 inches or less, but more than 3 inches, above the
station platform a maximum slope of 1:6 is permitted; if the height of
the vehicle floor, under 50% passenger load, from which the ramp is
deployed is 9 inches or less, but more than 6 inches, above the
station platform a maximum slope of 1:8 is permitted; if the height of
the vehicle floor, under 50% passenger load, from which the ramp is
deployed is greater than 9 inches above the station platform a slope
of 1:12 shall be achieved. Folding or telescoping ramps are permitted
provided they meet all structural requirements of this section.

      (6) Attachment. - (i) Requirement.  When in use for boarding or
alighting, the ramp or bridge plate shall be attached to the vehicle,
or otherwise prevented from moving such that it is not subject to
displacement when loading or unloading a heavy power mobility aid and
that any gaps between vehicle and ramp or bridge plate, and station
platform and ramp or bridge plate, shall not exceed 5/8 inch.

      (ii) Exception.  Ramps or bridge plates which are attached to,
and deployed from, station platforms are permitted in lieu of car
devices provided they meet the displacement requirements of paragraph
(c)(6)(i) of this section.   

      (7) Stowage.  A compartment, securement system, or other
appropriate method shall be provided to ensure that stowed ramps or
bridge plates, including portable ramps or bridge plates stowed in the
passenger area, do not impinge on a passenger's wheelchair or mobility
aid or pose any hazard to passengers in the event of a sudden stop.

      (8) Handrails.  If provided, handrails shall allow persons with
disabilities to grasp them from outside the car while starting to
board, and to continue to use them throughout the boarding process,
and shall have the top between 30 inches and 38 inches above the ramp
surface. The handrails shall be capable of withstanding a force of 100
pounds concentrated at any point on the handrail without permanent
deformation of the rail or its supporting structure. The handrail
shall have a cross-sectional diameter between 1-1/4 inches and 1-1/2
inches or shall provide an equivalent grasping surface, and have eased
edges with corner radii of not less than 1/8 inch. Handrails shall not
interfere with wheelchair or mobility aid maneuverability when
entering or leaving the car.

      (d) Seating. - (1) Requirements.  All intercity rail cars
required to be accessible by Section 1192.111(a) and (e) of this subpart
shall provide at least one, but not more than two, mobility aid
seating location(s) complying with paragraph (d)(2) of this section;
and at least one, but not more than two, seating location(s) complying
with paragraph (d)(3) of this section which adjoin or overlap an
accessible route with a minimum clear width of 32 inches. 

      (2) Wheelchair or mobility aid spaces.  Spaces for persons who
wish to remain in their wheelchairs or mobility aids shall have a
minimum clear floor area 48 inches by 30 inches. Such space may have
fold-down or removable seats for use when not occupied by a wheelchair
or mobility aid user. (See Fig. 2)

      (3) Other spaces.  Spaces for individuals who wish to transfer
shall include a regular coach seat or dining car booth or table seat
and space to fold and store the passenger's wheelchair.

Section 1192.127 Sleeping compartments.
      (a) Sleeping compartments required to be accessible shall be
designed so as to allow a person using a wheelchair or mobility aid to
enter, maneuver within and approach and use each element within such
compartment. (See Fig. 5)

      (b) Each accessible compartment shall contain a restroom
complying with Section 1192.123(a) which can be entered directly from such
compartment.

      (c) Controls and operating mechanisms (e.g., heating and air
conditioning controls, lighting controls, call buttons, electrical
outlets, etc.) shall be mounted no more than 48 inches, and no less
than 15 inches, above the floor and shall have a clear floor area
directly in front a minimum of 30 inches by 48 inches. Controls and
operating mechanisms shall be operable with one hand and shall not
require tight grasping, pinching, or twisting of the wrist.

Subpart G -- Over-the-Road Buses and Systems

Section 1192.151 General. 
      (a) New, used and remanufactured over-the-road buses, to be
considered accessible by regulations issued by the Department of
Transportation in 49 CFR part 37, shall comply with this subpart.

      (b) Over-the-road buses covered by 49 CFR 37.7(c) shall comply
with Section 1192.23 and this subpart.

Section 1192.153 Doors, steps and thresholds. 
      (a) Floor surfaces on aisles, step treads and areas where
wheelchair and mobility aid users are to be accommodated shall be
slip-resistant.    

      (b) All step edges shall have a band of color(s) running the full
width of the step which contrasts from the step tread and riser,
either dark-on-light or light-on-dark.

      (c) To the maximum extent practicable, doors shall have a minimum
clear width when open of 30 inches, but in no case less than 27
inches.

Section 1192.155 Interior circulation, handrails and stanchions. 
      (a) Handrails and stanchions shall be provided in the entrance to
the vehicle in a configuration which allows passengers to grasp such
assists from outside the vehicle while starting to board, and to
continue using such handrails or stanchions throughout the boarding
process. Handrails shall have a cross-sectional diameter between 1-1/4
inches and 1-1/2 inches or shall provide an equivalent grasping
surface, and have eased edges with corner radii of not less than 1/8
inch. Handrails shall be placed to provide a minimum 1-1/2 inches
knuckle clearance from the nearest adjacent surface. Where on-board
fare collection devices are used, a horizontal passenger assist shall
be located between boarding passengers and the fare collection device
and shall prevent passengers from sustaining injuries on the fare
collection device or windshield in the event of a sudden deceleration.
Without restricting the vestibule space, the assist shall provide
support for a boarding passenger from the door through the boarding
procedure. Passengers shall be able to lean against the assist for
security while paying fares.

      (b) Where provided within passenger compartments, handrails or
stanchions shall be sufficient to permit safe on-board circulation,
seating and standing assistance, and alighting by persons with
disabilities.

Section 1192.157 Lighting. 
      (a) Any stepwell or doorway immediately adjacent to the driver
shall have, when the door is open, at least 2 foot-candles of
illumination measured on the step tread.  

      (b) The vehicle doorway shall have outside light(s) which, when
the door is open, provide at least 1 foot-candle of illumination on
the street surface for a distance of 3 feet perpendicular to all
points on the bottom step tread outer edge. Such light(s) shall be
located below window level and shielded to protect the eyes of
entering and exiting passengers.  

Section 1192.159 Mobility aid accessibility.  [Reserved]

Subpart H -- Other Vehicles and Systems

Section 1192.171 General. 
      (a) New, used and remanufactured vehicles and conveyances for
systems not covered by other subparts of this part, to be considered
accessible by regulations issued by the Department of Transportation
in 49 CFR part 37, shall comply with this subpart.

      (b) If portions of the vehicle or conveyance are modified in a
way that affects or could affect accessibility, each such portion
shall comply, to the extent practicable, with the applicable
provisions of this subpart. This provision does not require that
inaccessible vehicles be retrofitted with lifts, ramps or other
boarding devices.

      (c) Requirements for vehicles and systems not covered by this
part shall be determined on a case-by-case basis by the Department of
Transportation in consultation with the U. S. Architectural and
Transportation Barriers Compliance Board (Access Board)

Section 1192.173 Automated guideway transit vehicles and systems.
      (a) Automated Guideway Transit (AGT) vehicles and systems,
sometimes called "people movers", operated in airports and other areas
where AGT vehicles travel at slow speed, shall comply with the
provisions of Sections 1192.53(a) through (c), and 1192.55 through 1192.61
for rapid rail vehicles and systems.

      (b) Where the vehicle covered by paragraph (a) of this section
will operate in an accessible station, the design of vehicles shall be
coordinated with the boarding platform design such that the horizontal
gap between a vehicle door at rest and the platform shall be no
greater than 1 inch and the height of the vehicle floor shall be
within plus or minus 1/2 inch of the platform height under all normal
passenger load conditions. Vertical alignment may be accomplished by
vehicle air suspension or other suitable means of meeting the
requirement.

      (c) In stations where open platforms are not protected by
platform screens, a suitable device or system shall be provided to
prevent, deter or warn individuals from stepping off the platform
between cars. Acceptable devices include, but are not limited to,
pantograph gates, chains, motion detectors or other appropriate
devices.

      (d) Light rail and rapid rail AGT vehicles and systems shall
comply with subparts D and C of this part, respectively.

Section 1192.175 High-speed rail cars, monorails and systems.
      (a) All cars for high-speed rail systems, including but not
limited to those using "maglev" or high speed steel-wheel-on-steel-
rail technology, and monorail systems operating primarily on dedicated
rail (i.e., not used by freight trains) or guideway, in which stations
are constructed in accordance with subpart C of 49 CFR part 37, shall
be designed for high-platform, level boarding and shall comply with
Section 1192.111(a) for each type of car which is similar to intercity rail,
Section Section 1192.111(d), 1192.113(a) through (c) and (e), 1192.115(a) and (b),
1192.117(a) and (b), 1192.121 through 1192.123, 1192.125(d), and
1192.127 (if applicable). The design of cars shall be coordinated with
the boarding platform design such that the horizontal gap between a
car door at rest and the platform shall be no greater than 3 inches
and the height of the car floor shall be within plus or minus 5/8 inch
of the platform height under all normal passenger load conditions.
Vertical alignment may be accomplished by car air suspension or other
suitable means of meeting the requirement. All doorways shall have,
when the door is open, at least 2 footcandles of illumination measured
on the door threshold.

      (b) All other high-speed rail cars shall comply with the similar
provisions of subpart F of this part.

Section 1192.177 Ferries, excursion boats and other vessels. [Reserved] 

Section 1192.179 Trams, similar vehicles and systems.
      (a) New and used trams consisting of a tractor unit, with or
without passenger accommodations, and one or more passenger trailer
units, including but not limited to vehicles providing shuttle service
to remote parking areas, between hotels and other public
accommodations, and between and within amusement parks and other
recreation areas, shall comply with this section. For purposes of
determining applicability of 49 CFR 37.101, 37.103, or 37.105, the
capacity of such a vehicle or "train" shall consist of the total
combined seating capacity of all units, plus the driver, prior to any
modification for accessibility.

      (b) Each tractor unit which accommodates passengers and each
trailer unit shall comply with Sections 1192.25 and 1192.29. In addition,
each such unit shall comply with Sections 1192.23(b) or (c) and shall provide
at least one space for wheelchair or mobility aid users complying with
Section 1192.23(d) unless the complete operating unit consisting of tractor
and one or more trailers can already accommodate at least two
wheelchair or mobility aid users.


Appendix to Part 1192 -- Advisory Guidance

This appendix contains materials of an advisory nature and provides
additional information that should help the reader to understand the
minimum requirements of the guidelines or to design vehicles for
greater accessibility.  Each entry is applicable to all subparts of
this part except where noted.  Nothing in this appendix shall in any
way obviate any obligation to comply with the requirements of the
guidelines themselves.


I.    Slip Resistant Surfaces -- Aisles, steps, floor areas where
      people walk, floor areas in securement locations, lift platforms,
      ramps.
Slip resistance is based on the frictional force necessary to keep a
shoe heel or crutch tip from slipping on a walking surface under
conditions likely to be found on the surface.  While the dynamic
coefficient of friction during walking varies in a complex and non-
uniform way, the static coefficient of friction, which can be measured
in several ways, provides a close approximation of the slip resistance
of a surface.  Contrary to popular belief, some slippage is necessary
to walking, especially for persons with restricted gaits; a truly
"non-slip" surface could not be negotiated.  

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration recommends that
walking surfaces have a static coefficient of friction of 0.5.  A
research project sponsored by the Architectural and Transportation
Barriers Compliance Board (Access Board) conducted tests with persons
with disabilities and concluded that a higher coefficient of friction
was needed by such persons.  A static coefficient of friction of 0.6
is recommended for steps, floors, and lift platforms and 0.8 for
ramps.  

The coefficient of friction varies considerably due to the presence of
contaminants, water, floor finishes, and other factors not under the
control of transit providers and may be difficult to measure. 
Nevertheless, many common materials suitable for flooring are now
labeled with information on the static coefficient of friction.  While
it may not be possible to compare one product directly with another,
or to guarantee a constant measure, transit operators or vehicle
designers and manufacturers are encouraged to specify materials with
appropriate values.  As more products include information on slip
resistance, improved uniformity in measurement and specification is
likely.  The Access Board's advisory guidelines on Slip Resistant
Surfaces provides additional information on this subject.

II.   Color Contrast -- Step edges, lift platform edges.
The material used to provide contrast should contrast by at least 70%. 
Contrast in percent is determined by:

                      Contrast = [(B1 - B2)/B1] x 100

where B1 = light reflectance value (LRV) of the lighter area
and B2 = light reflectance value (LRV) of the darker area.

Note that in any application both white and black are never absolute;
thus, B1 never equals 100 and B2 is always greater than 0.

III.  Handrails and Stanchions.
In addition to the requirements for handrails and stanchions for rapid,
light, and commuter rail vehicles, consideration should be given to the
proximity of handrails or stanchions to the area in which wheelchair or
mobility aid users may position themselves. When identifying the clear
floor space where a wheelchair or mobility aid user can be accommodated,
it is suggested that at least one such area be adjacent or in close
proximity to a handrail or stanchion.  Of course, such a handrail or
stanchion cannot encroach upon the required 32 inch width required for
the doorway or the route leading to the clear floor space which must be
at least 30 by 48 inches in size.

IV.   Priority Seating Signs and Other Signage.
A. Finish and Contrast.  The characters and background of signs should
be eggshell, matte, or other non-glare finish.  An eggshell finish (11
to 19 degree gloss on 60 degree glossimeter) is recommended.  Characters
and symbols should contrast with their background -- either light
characters on a dark background or dark characters on a light background. 
Research indicates that signs are more legible for persons with low
vision when characters contrast with their background by at least 70
percent.  Contrast in percent is determined by:

Contrast = [(B1 - B2)/B1] x 100

where B1 = light reflectance value (LRV) of the lighter area
and B2 = light reflectance value (LRV) of the darker area.

Note that in any application both white and black are never absolute;
thus, B1 never equals 100 and B2 is always greater than 0.

The greatest readability is usually achieved through the use of
light-colored characters or symbols on a dark background.  

B. Destination and Route Signs.  The following specifications, which are
required for buses (Section 1192.39), are recommended for other types of
vehicles, particularly light rail vehicles, where appropriate.

      1. Where destination or route information is displayed on the
exterior of a vehicle, each vehicle should have illuminated signs on the
front and boarding side of the vehicle. 

      2. Characters on signs covered by paragraph IV.B.1 of this appendix
should have a width-to-height ratio between 3:5 and 1:1 and a stroke
width-to-height ratio between 1:5 and 1:10, with a minimum character
height (using an upper case "X") of 1 inch for signs on the boarding side
and a minimum character height of 2 inches for front "headsigns", with
"wide" spacing (generally, the space between letters shall be 1/16 the
height of upper case letters), and should contrast with the background,
either dark-on-light or light-on-dark, or as recommended above.

C. Designation of Accessible Vehicles.  The International Symbol of
Accessibility should be displayed as shown in Figure 6.

V.    Public Information Systems.  
There is currently no requirement that vehicles be equipped with an
information system which is capable of providing the same or equivalent
information to persons with hearing loss.  While the Department of
Transportation assesses available and soon-to-be available technology
during a study to be conducted during Fiscal Year 1992, entities are
encouraged to employ whatever services, signage or alternative systems
or devices that provide equivalent access and are available.  Two
possible types of devices are visual display systems and listening
systems.  However, it should be noted that while visual display systems
accommodate persons who are deaf or are hearing impaired, assistive
listening systems aid only those with a partial loss of hearing. 

A. Visual Display Systems.  Announcements may be provided in a visual
format by the use of electronic message boards or video monitors.

Electronic message boards using a light emitting diode (LED) or "flip-
dot" display are currently provided in some transit stations and
terminals and may be usable in vehicles.  These devices may be used to
provide real time or pre-programmed messages; however, real time message
displays require the availability of an employee for keyboard entry of
the information to be announced.

Video monitor systems, such as visual paging systems provided in some
airports (e.g., Baltimore-Washington International Airport), are another
alternative.  The Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance
Board (Access Board) can provide technical assistance and information on
these systems ("Airport TDD Access:  Two Case Studies," (1990)).

B. Assistive Listening Systems.  Assistive listening systems (ALS) are
intended to augment standard public address and audio systems by
providing signals which can be received directly by persons with special
receivers or their own hearing aids and which eliminate or filter
background noise.  Magnetic induction loops, infra-red and radio
frequency systems are types of listening systems which are appropriate
for various applications.  

An assistive listening system appropriate for transit vehicles, where a
group of persons or where the specific individuals are not known in
advance, may be different from the system appropriate for a particular
individual provided as an auxiliary aid or as part of a reasonable
accommodation.  The appropriate device for an individual is the type that
individual can use, whereas the appropriate system for a station or
vehicle will necessarily be geared toward the "average" or aggregate
needs of various individuals.  Earphone jacks with variable volume
controls can benefit only people who have slight hearing loss and do not
help people who use hearing aids.  At the present time, magnetic
induction loops are the most feasible type of listening system for people
who use hearing aids equipped with "T-coils", but people without hearing
aids or those with hearing aids not equipped with inductive pick-ups
cannot use them without special receivers.  Radio frequency systems can
be extremely effective and inexpensive.  People without hearing aids can
use them, but people with hearing aids need a special receiver to use
them as they are presently designed.  If hearing aids had a jack to allow
a by-pass of microphones, then radio frequency systems would be suitable
for people with and without hearing aids.  Some listening systems may be
subject to interference from other equipment and feedback from hearing
aids of people who are using the systems.  Such interference can be
controlled by careful engineering design that anticipates feedback
sources in the surrounding area.

The Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board (Access
Board) has published a pamphlet on Assistive Listening Systems which
lists demonstration centers across the country where technical assistance
can be obtained in selecting and installing appropriate systems.  The
state of New York has also adopted a detailed technical specification
which may be useful.